Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy - what is dangerous is the disease? Sources of infection of toxoplasmosis and the implications for pregnant women and children. Symptoms of toxoplasmosis, an effective treatment for toxoplasmosis
One of the most common parasiticDiseases considered toxoplasmosis. The disease is caused by the microorganism Toxoplasma gondii, which does not represent a serious danger to people in their everyday life. But expectant mothers need to be careful: in forty percent of all cases of toxoplasmosis can be a consequence of transmission of infection to the unborn baby and the very substantial destruction of internal systems and organs of the fetus.
Sources of infection
More than ninety percent of the people do not even know,being infected with toxoplasmosis - a disease occurs without symptoms. Rarely - malaise and fever (with the active development of the process). These symptoms usually go away. With regard to the incubation period - it is about a week.
Given the formation of immunity, reproduction of the pathogen in cells stops - it disappears from human blood and performs encapsulation tissue. It is called carriage of toxoplasmosis - In the inactive infection can "sleep" for several decades.
The main sources of infection are dangerous for pregnant women - a meatIn respect of which it was carried out substandardThermal treatment: cysts of Toxoplasma, statistically, infected pork (about 25 percent), lamb (the same amount) and about one percent beef.
Also worth noting are sources, as:
- Vegetables and fruitsthat not subjected thorough washing. look What fruits are harmful during pregnancy.
- application Dirty knives (Especially for shop sausage and cheese cuts).
- Irregular hand washing With soap.
- Domestic cats. As a result of eating a rodent or contaminated raw meat, the cat becomes a carrier of infection, which successfully develops in its body and is released outward along with cat feces.
Once in the human gastrointestinal tract, the infection settles in the epithelium of the small intestine. After reproduction, it spreads through the lymph nodes throughout the body along with blood. In this way, toxoplasmosis Gets on the inside, like Chronic chronic infection.
Symptoms of toxoplasmosis
According to studies, the effect of Toxoplasma canexpressed aggressive, depressed and unusually relaxed behavior. For example, rats infected with this infection, lose their fear of cats. As for the people - they are characterized by symptoms of depression, schizophrenia and anxiety.
Usually the disease is without pronounced symptoms. Occasionally toxoplasmosis can resemble mononucleosis in its clinical processes, but to pneumonia or fatal encephalomyelitis rarely leads.
Possible effects of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
- eye involvement (Chorioretinitis).
- Abscesses brain (in immunodeficiency).
- Inflammatory processes with necrosis (at reproduction of the pathogen).
- Residual effects for the unborn child - deformation and dysfunction of organs.
The main routes of transmission of Toxoplasma
- During transfusion infected blood (Transplantation of infected organs) - the parenteral route.
- Contact the pathogen in the body through the feces infected animals - contact way.
- When transmission of the disease from mother to child - Transplacental route.
- at non-observance of personal hygiene and the use of raw infected meat - the food path.
The toxoplasmosis is dangerous for pregnant women?
If a pregnant woman has not previously had to meet with toxoplasmosis, it has a risk of "catch" the disease with reduced immunity. What is the main danger?
- Penetrating through the placenta pathogen can cause infection of the fetus. The consequence of such penetration may be the development of pathologies. Moreover, the gestational age does not matter.
- The first and second trimester - the most vulnerableperiod. If infection has occurred in the last trimester, the course of the disease in unborn baby usually occurs without symptoms. Symptoms also may appear after months or even years.
According to research, More than sixty percent of expectant mothersWho have had toxoplasmosis in the process of carrying a child, gave birth to perfectly healthy children.
The dependence of the duration of pregnancy and the possible consequences for the child
- From 0 to 8 weeks: Miscarriage, anophthalmia and other anomalies.
- From 8 to 18 weeks: defeat liver And brain convulsions.
- From 18 to 24 weeks: Various violations of the functions of internal systems and organs.
- From 24 to 40 weeks: Deafness, inflammation of the eye membrane, ocular toxoplasmosis (several years after birth).
For others, the future mother's disease is dangerousIt is not considered - they can be treated quite calmly in hospitals and outpatient settings. If a woman had experienced toxoplasmosis earlier than six months before pregnancy, then treatment and monitoring is not necessary.
Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis
- General clinical research methods.
- Immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay.
- Amniocentesis and cordocentesis.
- infectious disease consultation.
Effective treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
- Infection the first trimester: abortion.
- Infection on the second and third trimester: Treatment.
- Examination of the baby after birth, The appointment of appropriate therapy, monitoring for five years.
Concerning drugs for the treatment of toxoplasmosis - Are commonly used:
- Funds from pyrimethamine group (Three cycles, a break and a half months).
- Macrolides. Means for inhibition of protein synthesis in the cells of the pathogen (rulid, spiromitsin).
- Antibiotics (In case of intolerance above means).
- Immunomodulators (Galavit, polioksidony).
Measures toxoplasmosis prophylaxis for pregnant women
All sign of the fact that any disease is muchis easier to prevent than to deal with it after the serious consequences. Therefore, expectant mothers, in organisms that IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma are not available, must be observed following rules:
- Contraindicated contact with soil, sand (And other items), if there is a risk of the presence in them of the cat feces.
- If contact with the questionable items can not be avoided, it should work only in rubber gloves, then carefully to wash hands with antibacterial soap.
Any meat should be subject to prolonged heat treatment (Boiling and frying). Street pies, shawarma, belyashi and other "joys quick bite" - are excluded.
- All fresh berries, greens and lettuce thoroughly washed. In fruits and vegetables after washing is better to remove the skin.
- After cooking should thoroughly washed, like hands and kitchen utensils.
- Domestic cats should not be at this time to release the streetAs well as to feed raw meat.
- It is also shown the passage of regular surveys for antibodies to toxoplasma.
Compliance with these fairly simple rulesIt provides virtually exclusion of risks of contracting toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Compliance with hygiene, attention to yourself and your home will help prevent this disease.
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