Mom often in the dark about the health of her baby. screening procedure during pregnancy dispel doubts and give information about the health of mother and child
Screening - is a relatively new and unfamiliarprocedure, but from ignorance and attitude may be different from sharply positive to strongly negative. However, experts argue that the screening test is completely safe and completely painless method of examination of pregnant women, who can give full information you need about the fruit and its development at the moment.
Do not take into account the information received as a result ofThis procedure is not rational, because with such awareness, parents can prepare in advance for any unexpected turns, the Health unborn child.
If we translate the name of the procedure, then it will literally "screening"That is, healthy pregnant women are eliminated from those who may be problems and complications during childbirth, or after them.
With this procedure, it is possible to calculatethe most accurate probability of Down's syndrome, to calculate the possible miscarriage, malformation, and so on. On the other hand, ignorance of a woman during pregnancy can bring down on her unforeseen difficulties to which it might not be ready.
So to prove the benefit of screening is no longer necessary. A survey in the first trimester or early first called and held from 11 to 13 weeks, following consultation with the doctor.
Dates of the second screening
Dates of the second screening atpregnant (it is also called triple test, the name comes from the number of hormones, which can be verified) experts determined the fourteenth to the twentieth week of the date of the last menstrual period. The most favorable period of the test is the period from the sixteenth to the eighteenth week.
This is because a time period in thea pregnant woman has in her body the maximum amount of hormones, and screening results under such circumstances will be as close as possible to the real situation.
Triple test complex includesdefinition of certain hormones in the blood markers of a pregnant woman (AFP (alpha-fetoprotein), free estriol, and b-hCG) and ultrasound or ultrasound. It is held for all women in order to confirm or refute the early survey of the first data. Or the second screening is carried out during the testimony that emerged sharp.
Indications for study
Indications for the study with the same the first screening and they are quite logical.
This screening is prescribed in the following cases:
- if the parents of the child have a blood kinship;
- expectant mother suffered an acute bacterial or viral infection;
- If a woman suffers from diseases transmitted genetically: cancer pathology, diabetes mellitus, a disease of the musculoskeletal system;
- even if one of the parents in the family has a genetic disorder called chromosome;
- if the expectant mother has already had a premature birth or miscarriage;
- if a pregnant woman has a child was born with developmental abnormalities;
- If a pregnant woman in history was the fact fetal death before delivery;
- if a pregnant woman during the initial ultrasound to the fourteenth week of pregnancy were identified abnormalities in fetal development.
More reason for the study is the development ofacute infectious disease for a period of fourteen to twenty weeks, or if the pregnant woman discovered the tumor after the fourteenth week.
In cases of acute infectious diseases and tumors woman should be directed to the doctor genetics for deciding the need for full perinatal study of the second trimester.
In the second screening examination is evaluatedthe following indicators: the volume of the head, abdomen, chest, bones of the length of the same name on both sides. During the second survey it is possible to draw a conclusion - whether the term of pregnancy, fetal size and proportionality of its development.
Evaluated cerebellum and ventricles of the brain, face andprofile face, including the eye socket and nasolabial triangle, spine, bladder and kidneys, intestines and stomach, heart ventricles and atria, as well as places of large vessels departing from it. Incidentally, during the second screening procedures if enforcement of the anomaly can be found out there, and how to develop the cardiovascular system.
At the same time the survey also showsmother of provisional or interim bodies. With it, estimated the thickness and location of the placenta, its maturity and structure; the number of vessels in the umbilical cord and amniotic fluid; state appendages, cervical and uterine walls. And taking all this evidence, we can conclude whether there is at the moment of fetal development defects, or not.
Given all this information, and all the risks thatmay arise, as well as knowing that during the second pregnancy, childbirth can be used to the first screening is a good opportunity to learn about all possible threats in advance.
The study of hormone levels
For example, as mentioned above,hormones determined biochemical screening markers, including AFP, a protein that is present in the blood of unborn child at a sufficiently early stage of embryonic development. It is produced in the liver and the fetal gastrointestinal tract, and its function is to protect the fetus from the mother's immune system.
If the increase in the level of AFP is seen talking aboutthe likely existence of a Meckel syndrome, or anentsefalii - malformations neural tube or Artesia esophagus or umbilical hernia, and possible failure of union of the anterior abdominal wall or necrosis of the liver of the fetus.
But the lower level of the same AFP makes it possible to assume the presence of Down syndrome, Edwards, incorrect calculation of gestational age or fetal death.
Free estriol is produced by the liver of the fetus, although in the beginning, though, the placenta, and if the development goes well, then the level is growing all the time.
Increasing its level can be the causethe following situations: Multiple pregnancy, large fruit, kidney disease or liver disease in pregnant women. But the decline of this hormone may be an indication of intrauterine infection, fetal adrenal hypoplasia, threatened preterm labor, fetal anencephaly, Down's syndrome or placental insufficiency.
Screening and second generations
During the first delivery everything goes muchharder and longer, and, in the normal course of pregnancy, they are seldom used to 38 weeks. But with delivery dates in the second pregnancy, everything is different.
The second pregnancy can result in birth,which will begin promptly, and in a period of 38 weeks of gestation for the second birth - a normal thing. Screening helps to understand whether the mother is ready and the baby she was carrying under her heart, to the unexpected rapid delivery. Well, if you come to the second delivery period 39 weeks, you can assume that you have successfully denounced the kid and he is ready for the birth.
Screening or not - decidesonly the parents, taking responsibility for all risks. role of the doctor - to explain the usefulness of the analysis of the pregnant woman and to prepare the future mother to him properly.