The reasons for high blood sugar during pregnancy. Risk factors. Symptoms improve blood sugar levels in a pregnant woman. Diet and physical activity at elevated sugar. The need for insulin
Increased sugar in pregnancy medicinecalled gestational diabetes. Its main difference from the constant shape is that it occurs only during pregnancy and disappears after delivery yourself. High blood sugar is dangerous for both the woman and the fetus. Kid can strongly put on weight, which will lead to severe birth.
It may also occur hypoxia (lack of oxygen). But timely initiated adequate treatment of this condition can be corrected.
The risk of disease development can be reduced at the stage of planning a child by controlling weight, regularly working out and sticking to a healthy diet.
Why rising glucose levels?
Normally this rate is controlled by the hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas. Under its influence glucose from food enters the cells of the body, there is a decrease of its level in blood.
The hormones of pregnancy have the oppositeinsulin effect - increases the rate of blood. This increases the load on the pancreas and it can not cope with their work. As a result, the glucose levels begin to rise above the norm.
Increase may cause unwanted effectsboth the mother and the fetus. Glucose crosses the placenta into the baby's blood and increases the load on it, not yet fully formed, the pancreas. She, in turn, starts to work more actively, producing insulin, which accelerates the absorption of glucose, and turning it into fat. This leads to excessive growth of the child.
Moreover, acceleration of metabolism requires increased amounts of oxygen, but its supply is limited. This process is a lack of oxygen and, accordingly, fetal hypoxia.
That increases the chances of developing the disease?
- The high degree of obesity;
- Gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy;
- Sugar in the urine;
- Polycystic ovary syndrome;
- Diabetes in close relatives.
If the woman's age is less than 25 years old, she has a history of complications of pregnancy and it does not have the above factors, the risk of developing this condition is reduced to a minimum.
Symptoms of high blood sugar in pregnancy
Easy step violations generally does not manifest itself, so the expectant mother may be unaware of the presence of this condition. It is for this reason that important time to be tested.
At the slightest deviation in the results of the study were the gynecologist prescribe additional analysis called "Test glucose tolerance". The essence of the study is to measure sugar glass of water after use with glucose, and not on an empty stomach.
Normal rate - 3,3-5,5 mmol / l. Violation of tolerance - from 5.5 to 7.1. Diabetes - more than 7.1 fasting and after glucose in excess of 11.1.
Since the blood sugar level varies throughout the day, the results may be erroneous.
For a more accurate diagnosis is carried out on the glycated hemoglobin test. This study shows the glucose level over the past 7-10 days.
If he at least once rose above the established norm, the test will determine this. That is why this study is used to control diabetes.
Moderate and severe course of disease has the following symptoms:
- Constant thirst;
- Attacks of severe hunger;
- Frequent urination, copious amounts of urine;
- Visual impairment.
Since pregnant thirst and increased appetiteIt is a normal phenomenon, only they can not confirm the diagnosis. Therefore, regular surveys and examinations by a doctor to help prevent or detect the disease.
Diet for high blood sugar and other treatments for pregnant women
The main task of doctors and women - supportperformance within normal limits throughout the time both before meal and after such. It is recommended to adhere to a fractional power, eat at least 6 times a day. This technique allows you to evenly distribute the flow of nutrients throughout the day, to avoid sharp jumps of sugar.
A diet with increased levels of sugar basedon the exclusion from the menu of simple carbohydrates (pastries, jam, sugar, and so on. n.). Reduce the amount of complex carbohydrates by 50%. It is necessary to consult a doctor, dietitian for matching specific menus and calories.
The issue of physical activity
outdoor Sport enrich the bodyOxygen, which is so necessary to the fetus. Regular walking will improve its metabolism. In addition, exercise contribute unnecessary expenditure of sugar, so its level falls.
Also, exercise can help get rid of extra calories to stop the weight gain and even reduce such. Such events allow insulin do a better job, because it hinders fat.
In most cases, physical activity and diet eliminates symptoms of gestational diabetes. You do not need to pace yourself regular exercise or go to the gym.
Usually enough walking at a fast pace. Engage only need 2-3 times a week for several hours. These classes will contribute to reduce the consumption of calories and glucose to the normal range, but you need to follow a diet, especially with respect to those who do not take insulin.
Who needs to take insulin during pregnancy?
This substance is safe for women and children. It is not addictive and is completely canceled after childbirth without any adverse effects. Applied in it when the diet and activity are inconclusive. Sometimes the situation calls for the immediate appointment of insulin.
Insulin treatment should be carried out strictly on prescription. It is necessary to carry out his instructions, for example, it is impossible to skip or change the time. Also important is the timely delivery of analyzes.
Women who take insulin, have several times a day to measure blood sugar level using a glucometer. Indications recorded in a notebook, and then show the doctor during the next administration.
The consequences of high blood sugar to the fetus and women during pregnancy
The child may have complex injurieswhich in medicine is called diabetic fetopathy. Primarily it includes an increase in body weight. US shows advance in the development after 20 weeks.
Usually children have mothers with such a diagnosis are more than 4 kg at birth. Most of the body weight increases the risk of birth defects, such as subluxation of the cervical vertebrae.
Increased sugar levels may lead to differentdiseases, malformations. Often diagnosed imbalances skeleton, heart disease, brain and urinary tract. High risk of fetal death, death after birth and in the first week of life.
The cause of death after birth is usually a lung hypoplasia. During birth the child may suffer because of a malfunction of the adrenal glands and liver.
Mostly women give birth naturally. The presence of gestational diabetes is not an indication for cesarean section. Need they arise if the child is too big for the birth canal. Therefore, patients often prescribed to women ultrasound.
When labor begins, doctors are monitoring the performance of glucose in the body. If they are significantly higher than the norm. The doctor assigns the intravenous administration of insulin.
At the same time may prescribe glucose drip. It is also necessary to monitor fetal heartbeat using CTG. In an emergency cesarean section is prescribed.
A few days after the birth of a babyindices return to normal. But the woman must be prepared for the fact that during the next pregnancy deviation will reappear. In addition, it increases the risk of diabetes constant thereafter.