Procedures that allow to hear the fetal heartbeat: ultrasound, echocardiography, auscultation and CTG. The rate of heart rate at different stages: as evidenced by their quickening and slowing
The heartbeat of the fetus - the main indicator of itsviability. Any changes of rhythm indicate occurrence of adverse factors. Therefore, doctors monitor the process throughout pregnancy and during childbirth.
Features of the heart in the fetus
By about 4 weeks laid rudimentthe heart, which is a hollow tube, but within the first seven days appear pulsation. By week 9, the body becomes a four-chambered. However, in the womb the baby is not breathing himself, and receives oxygen from the mother, so his heart has some features, such as a hole between the atria and the ductus arteriosus to close after birth.
How to hear the heartbeat crumbs?
To listen to the beating heart of your baby, it is possible in several ways:
- Ultrasonography (ultrasound);
- Echocardiography (echocardiography);
- Auscultation (listening);
- CTG (cardiotocography).
In the first trimester of fetal heart ratedetermined weekly using ultrasound. Normally during a transvaginal ultrasound heartbeat detected in the 5-6 week, and during transabdominal - with 6-7.
Heart rate in the first trimester, depending on the time:
- 8 - from 110 to 130 beats per minute;
- The heartbeat of the fetus at 9-12 weeks - 170-190;
- From 13 until delivery - 140-160.
Frequency changes relate to the functionnervous system - or rather, part, responsible for the work of the bodies. Adverse symptoms is to decrease in the frequency of 85-100 beats per minute, as well as a significant acceleration (up to 200).
In such cases, eliminated is determined andcause of the abnormal heart rhythm. If the embryo has reached 8 mm, but no heart contractions, it suggests developing pregnancy. In order to confirm or refute the diagnosis carried repeat ultrasound after 5-7 days.
In the second and third trimester during the passage of the plan is determined by ultrasound:
- Location of heart. Normally, it is placed on the left and takes about one-third of the sternum transverse scanning;
- The frequency (heart rate of the fetus - 140-160);
- Nature of cuts (rhythmic / arrhythmic).
The frequency of contractions in late pregnancy in many waysIt depends on extraneous factors, such as movements of the fetus, the mother of physical stress, exposure to pregnant various factors (heat, cold, diseases).
If the fetus does not receive enough oxygen, the first heart rate increases above the norm (tachycardia), and then, after a deterioration of the condition of the child, falls below 120 (bradycardia).
To identify heart defects, using the so-called "four-chamber slice"- Ultrasound, allows you to see everything at once 4organ chamber. With this method, about 75% is detected abnormalities. If there is a need for more research, then appoint fetal echocardiography.
This procedure is a special kindultrasound. Echocardiography - a comprehensive way to fully explore the heart. It includes in addition to the standard two-dimensional ultrasound and other modes of operation of the scanner: the M-mode (one-dimensional) and the Doppler mode (for different parts of the study of blood flow). Echocardiography allows you to explore the structure of the heart and blood vessels, as well as their function.
This event is held on the testimony:
- Diabetes in expectant mothers;
- Infections that have been transferred during the gestation of the child;
- Age pregnant for more than 38 years;
- Congenital heart disease (CHD) in the mother;
- Delayed growth of the child;
- In the history of the birth of children with congenital heart disease;
- Changes in the heart of the detected ultrasound (abnormal rhythm, increase in size and so on.);
- Other pathologies, including genetic diseases, which are often associated with heart defects.
Optimal timing for echocardiography - 18-28 weeks. In the future, the visualization of the heart is difficult, because it reduces the amount of amniotic fluid and the baby grows in size.
This method is the simplest. This requires a simple device for listening to the fetal heart - Obstetrical stethoscope. From usual it differs a wide funnel which is applied to the abdomen expectant mother, on the other hand listening.
Since the invention of the stethoscope its form almost unchanged. Standard instrument made of wood, but now there is a plastic and aluminum products.
Heart sounds are beginning to be heard around18 weeks. As the child's development in the womb, they heard more strongly. At each scheduled scans when the fetus appears audible heartbeat stethoscope, the doctor must perform a hearing, and this phenomenon is controlled by a midwife during childbirth.
Auscultation listened and other sounds:
- Bowel sounds (gurgling, shimmering, irregular);
- Reduced uterine blood vessels, the aorta (the same as the pulse of women);
- It determines the point of listening to the best heart rate, character and rhythm of the heart rate;
- With cephalic presentation clearly audible tones below the navel, with the cross - at the same level with him, with breech - above;
- Auscultated rhythm. Arrhythmia characteristic of heart diseases and lack of oxygen (hypoxia);
- The tones can be heard bad due multi- or water scarcity, obesity, multiple pregnancy, and increased activity of the fetus.
During childbirth midwife spends listeningfetal heart every 15-20 minutes, while evaluating the rhythm before and after contractions, to determine how it reacts to the fetus. Also, the doctor listens to heart rate after each attempts, as at this time reduced the uterine muscles of the pelvic floor and abdominal wall in pregnant woman, which leads to a decrease in oxygen supply to the fetus.
The method allows to objectively examine the heartbaby after 32 weeks of pregnancy. Cardiography registers not only the heart but also the uterus. In modern devices is a function of the recording of motor activity of a baby in the womb.
During the procedure, the woman should lie with theback, side or sit. The procedure was carried out as before delivery and during such. The sensor is secured in place the best possible listening to tones and leave for 1 hour. The results allow the doctor to assess heart rate, its change in response to the contractions and movements of the child.
The need for CTG appears in the following situations:
- Fever in pregnant women with a temperature above 38;
- Preeclampsia severe;
- The scar on the uterus;
- Chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes);
- Evoke delivery (induction) / rodostimulyatsiya when weak labor;
- Malo or polyhydramnios;
- Premature aging of the placenta;
- Prenatal developmental delay;
- Changing the frequency and nature of the heartbeat auscultation;
- Violation of arterial blood flow.
After the doctor evaluates the CTG: average heart rate (the norm - 120-160), rhythm variability (allowable fluctuation - 5-25 beats per minute), the change in frequency of contractions or fetal movements, the presence of rhythm quickening or slowing.
Increased heart rate in response to the contraction of the uterus isa positive sign. Deceleration indicative of hypoxia fruit and placental insufficiency, but normally occurs when the pelvic situation of the child.
The heartbeat of the fetus in late pregnancy week by week is not determined, however, if necessary, the KGT can be carried out repeatedly.
Studies using variousmethods may be carried out throughout the period of pregnancy and during the birth process, and allow us to estimate the state of the child, early treatment in case of disease and to solve the issue of delivery.
How to hear the fetal heartbeat from home
To listen, you can usestethoscope described above, but they can take advantage of someone else and not herself pregnant. For expectant mothers have the opportunity to hear the baby's heartbeat with special instruments designed for use at home, for example, stand-alone fetal Doppler (monitors).
Such a device can take advantage of a verywoman, and other family members. It is completely safe for the health of the expectant mother and the child, you can hear a heartbeat from about 12 weeks of pregnancy without leaving your home, at any convenient time.
Enjoy the sweet sounds of your heart knocking crumbs! Quick and easy delivery to you!