When you need to enter the immunoglobulin during pregnancy? The conflict Rh factor: when it occurs and what to do? The use of Rh immunoglobulin
Pregnancy entails variousmetamorphosis in the body and do not always change in the positive direction. This period is significantly reduced immunity. The body itself provokes this process, consciously and purposefully.
Such action is necessary for the successful carrying a baby to the organism itself did not perceive it as a foreign body, or the fruit may be cut off.
Sometimes doctors use immune globulin atpregnancy, for example, for those who have problems with child-bearing. The agent can be administered in the form of injections or infusions. This preparation is based on the active substance isolated from plasma and then concentrated and purified. Its action is directed to immunomodulation and immunostimulation.
The tool helps the body resista variety of viruses and other microorganisms, which are the causative agents of diseases. Another feature is the drug replenishment level of IgG-antibodies, which reduces the possibility of infection in women with primary and secondary immunodeficiency.
He produced in two forms: the final solution and powder. Sold by prescription only.
When it is necessary immunoglobulin?
There are two types of preparation: anti-D immunoglobulin and "normal". This is a completely different matter, and each of them has its own indications. At the same time prescribe them only in extreme cases when there is a serious danger to the health of the patient.
Pregnant appoint only with immunoglobulinthere is a real threat of premature birth or miscarriage. In addition, it is used in case of pathologies (infections), which may affect the health of the fetus and the expectant mother. In addition, the tool is used at a fairly well-known Rhesus conflict.
Rh immune globulin: what to do during pregnancy?
According to the results of medical statistics obtained,that about 85% of people - Rh positive, the rest - Rh-negative. Conflict monkeys arises in two situations: transfusion of Rh-incompatible blood; during pregnancy women with negative Rh positive baby. The last option involves the introduction of anti-D immunoglobulin.
The immune system can share any cell to "their"And"alien", But this protective function becomes a problemduring pregnancy, when the mother sees the fetus as a foreign body. Once this happens, the female body begins to develop-immunoglobulin antibodies.
When for the first time there is a meeting with a foreignprotein (antigen) begins to produce immunoglobulin M. It, in turn, transmits information about a meeting-lymphocyte antigen, and synthesizes the immunoglobulin G - specific antibodies that are designed to interact with the antigen.
If there are antibodies to a particular antigen,sensitization of the organism occurs. The most important for physicians is the sensitization of women to fetal red blood cells, ie blood incompatibility of Rh-factor.
Conflict monkeys can cause anemia and newborn jaundiceAnd in some cases more serious consequences - fetal brain damage and heart.
When Rh conflict arises?
- of preeclampsia;
- Gestational diabetes;
- Medical manipulations;
- During childbirth;
- When placental abruption;
- Ectopic pregnancy.
From this it follows that antirezus immunoglobulinat first pregnancy, which flows and can not be synthesized without complications. After the birth of a baby or an abortion increases the likelihood of sensitization.
Prevention of rhesus
With regard to women with negative Rhesusnecessary to minimize invasive procedures, to avoid abortion. When blood transfusion carefully check compatibility. It is now widely practiced and prevention of mother-sensitization to fetal red blood cells.
There is a method to determine blood levels of immunoglobulins antirhesus. During pregnancy, the assay is carried out every month up to 32 weeks, twice a month to 36, and then weekly.
In the case where up to 28 weeks for antibodybaby red blood cells are not defined or titer higher than 1 to 4, in the same time, make a kind of vaccination - injection Rh immunoglobulin during pregnancy intramuscularly (resonator, GiperRou). This tool is ready antibodies to erythrocytes.
They will remain in the body for about 3 monthsand then eliminated. In case of contact with the blood of the fetus in the mother's bloodstream immunoglobulin destroy it, why not develop an immune response and sensitization will not happen.
Reentry occurs over 72 hourssince the birth of the baby. This measure will reduce the risk of Rhesus-conflict in subsequent pregnancies. But the second anti-Rhesus injection is necessary only in the case when the Rh positive blood was confirmed after birth.
In the same vein Rh immunoglobulinIt applies after the abortion took place after 8 weeks from the moment of conception, as well as miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy or premature birth, with injuries of the abdominal cavity and the end of the invasive procedures (eg, kordatsentez and amniocentesis).
If the term of 20 weeks, the titer antirhesusimmunoglobulin-over-1 to 16, it is necessary to control the level of antibodies every 2 weeks. At the same time the doctor prescribes ultrasound, Doppler, CTG to monitor the status of the child in the womb.
Sometimes, in such a situation, when the appearance of signshemolysis, there is a need of intrauterine blood transfusion to the fetus, as well as the question of the premature birth. These circumstances are strictly forbidden to enter the immunoglobulin.
The method of using an immunoglobulin
The drug is administered intramuscularly by means of injectionor by intravenous drip (drip). In each case, see a doctor determine the appropriate dosage, guided by individual tolerance of women and the state of its immunity.
Effects of intramuscular injection of immunoglobulin in pregnancy
It should be noted that the negative side reactionthe body is very rare. With the introduction of the drug necessary to comply with the dosage and rate of administration must be met and other recommendations.
There may be little effect onDuring the first hour after administration. This is usually such things as: general malaise, headache, weakness, chills. Some women have an injection provokes an increase in temperature.
Sometimes there are more rare side effectssuch as shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dry cough, excessive salivation, pain in the stomach and chest, tachycardia, cyanosis, drowsiness, itching and flushing, skin rash, and bronchospasm, myalgia, back pain, hiccups, and sweating, aching joints, etc.
During pregnancy, immunoglobulin widelyis used, but its effects on the fetus and the expectant mother has not been fully studied. It is therefore recommended to use it only in those cases where the risk of receiving considerably lower than the dangers of the disease.