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Causes and symptoms of syncope, first aid - what to do with the faint, and what not to do

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How to help a swoon? The main causes of syncope - from what faint. Signs and symptoms of fainting. What if I faint, first aid rules for fainting - on lady-magazine.com

Fainting - A protective reaction of the brain. It is in this method the brain, feeling the acute lack of oxygen, trying to correct the situation. That is, the "stacks" the body in a horizontal position to facilitate the work of the heart blood flow to the brain. As soon as the oxygen deficiency is filled, the person returns to normal. What are the causes of this phenomenon that precedes fainting, and how to provide first aid right?

What faint than dangerous and what it is - the main causes of syncope

Everyone knows the phenomenon - syncope is fainting a very brief period, from 5-10 seconds to 5-10 minutes. Fainting, which lasts for a longer time, longer life-threatening.

How dangerous swoon?

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Single syncopal episodes, in essence, not life-threatening. But there is cause for alarm if faint ...

  • It is a manifestation of a dangerous disease (abnormality of the heart, heart attack, arrhythmia, etc.).
  • Accompanied by a head injury.
  • There is a person that is engaged with the sport, driving a vehicle, aircraft control agent and so forth.
  • Repeated from time to time or regularly.
  • Sometimes in older people - for no apparent reason, and suddenly (there is risk of complete heart block).
  • It is accompanied by the disappearance of all reflexes, swallowing and breathing. There is a risk that the root of the tongue due to the relaxation of muscle tone and override zapadet airways.

Fainting - As a reaction to the smell of paint or the sight of bloodnot dangerous (except for the risk of injury during a fall). Much more dangerous, if faint - a symptom of disease or a nervous breakdown. Do not pull on a visit to the doctor. We need specialists - a neurologist, a cardiologist and a psychiatrist.

The possible causes of syncope have - a lot. Basic, the most common "triggers":

  • Short sharp decrease in pressure.
  • Long distance (especially if kept knees, "at attention").
  • Prolonged exposure in the same position (sitting, lying down) and a sharp rise to his feet.
  • Overheating, heat / sun stroke.
  • Stuffiness, heat and even very bright light.
  • Status of hunger.
  • Severe fatigue.
  • Fever.
  • Emotional stress, emotional shock, fright.
  • Acute pain is sudden.
  • Severe allergic reaction (for medicines, insect bites, etc..).
  • Hypotension.
  • Reaction to medicines at an elevated pressure.
  • Arrhythmia, anemia or glycemia.
  • Ear infections.
  • Bronchial asthma.
  • The onset of menstruation (girls).
  • Pregnancy.
  • Disorders of the autonomic nervous system.
  • The crowd, an impressive crowd of people.
  • Features puberty.
  • The instability of the psyche.
  • Reduction in blood sugar (for diabetes or a strict diet).
  • The problems of cerebral circulation in the elderly.
  • Nervous and physical exhaustion.

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Types of syncope:

  • Orthostatic syncope. It happens on a sharp change in body position (withhorizontal to vertical). The reason may be a lack of musculoskeletal system due to violations of function of nerve fibers - participants vasomotor function. Fainting dangerous fall and injury.
  • Syncope caused by long immobility (especially standing). Similar to the previous type. It arises due to lack of muscle contraction, the full blood flow through the vessels in the legs (blood can not overcome the force of gravity and reach the brain).
  • Altitude faint. It occurs at high altitudes due to poor blood supply to the brain.
  • "Simple" swoon (Is serious reason): clouding of consciousness, drop in pressure, shortness of breath, brief loss of consciousness, a very rapid return to normal.
  • Convulsive syncope. State accompanied by convulsions and (often), redness / bluish face.
  • Bettolepsiya. Short swoon with chronic lung disease, which results from a severe attack of coughing and the subsequent outflow of blood from the skull.
  • Drop attacks. Dizziness, severe weakness and fall without loss of consciousness. Risk factors: pregnancy, osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
  • Vasodepressor faint. Arises from the stuffiness, lack of sleep, fatigue,emotional stress, fear and so on. The pulse drops below 60 beats / min, the pressure drops sharply. To prevent fainting often as possible, just take a horizontal position.
  • Arrhythmic syncope. The investigation of one of the arrhythmia.
  • Situational syncope. Occurs after a bowel movement, constipation, diving, weightlifting and so forth. Due to increased intrathoracic pressure and other factors.
  • Carotid sinus syndrome. Note, the carotid sinuses - the expansion of the carotid arteries, the main suppliers of blood to the brain. Strong pressure on these sinuses (a tight collar, a sharp turn of the head) leads to fainting.
  • Syncope in the presence of cardiac arrhythmias. Occurs when a sharp bradycardia (heart rate - less than 40 beats / min) or with paroxysmal tachycardia (180-200 beats / min).
  • Anemic faint. Most often it occurs in the elderly due to a sharp decrease in hemoglobin, iron deficiency in the diet, due to impaired iron absorption (when there are digestive diseases).
  • Medical faint. Sometimes
  • It happens from intolerance / drug overdose.

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Signs and symptoms of syncope - fainting how to recognize a person?

Doctors usually allocated 3 state of syncope:

  • Headedness. The appearance of precursors of fainting. Condition lasts about 10-20 seconds. Symptoms include nausea, severe dizziness, shortness of breath, tinnitus and sudden weakness, sudden heaviness in the legs, cold sweat, and darkening of the eyes, pale skin, and numbness in the extremities, a rare breath, pressure drop and weak pulse, "flies" before their eyes, gray skin.
  • Fainting. Symptoms: fainting, decreased muscle tone and neurological reflexes, shallow breathing, in some cases, even seizures. Pulse is weak or not detectable. Pupils dilated, reaction to light is reduced.
  • Posleobmorochnoe. General weakness persists, consciousness returns, a sharp rise in the legs may trigger another attack.

Compared with other types of disorders of consciousness, fainting different full restoration of the state, which preceded it.

CPR and first aid for fainting - what to do with the faint and Don'ts?

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First aid for fainting is as follows:

  • Eliminate (if any) the factor of occurrence of syncope. That is, take out (output) of a person from the crowd, crowded rooms, stuffy room (or make a cool room from the street), are carrying out the road, take out of the water, and so forth.
  • We provide individual horizontal stable position - Head lower than the trunk, legs - higher (for the flow of blood to the head, if there is no head injury).
  • Puts on his side, for the prevention of tongue retraction (And to people choked vomiting). If the opportunity to put human absent, it shrinks and omit his head between his knees.
  • The following cause irritation of the skin receptors - Spray the person's face with cold water,rub the ears, a pat on the cheek, wipe the face with cold wet towel, ensure air flow (open collar, belt, corset, open the window), to inhale ammonia (vinegar) - 1-2 cm from the nose, slightly moistened cotton wool.
  • Wrap in a warm blanket with a lower body temperature.

When a person wakes up:

  • You can not just eat and drink.
  • You can not take a vertical position at once (only 10-30 minutes).
  • If one does not come to life:
  • Urgent call for an ambulance.
  • Check the free flow of air into the airways, pulse, listen to your breathing.
  • If there is no pulse and respiration - do chest compressions and artificial respiration ( "mouth to mouth").

If an elderly person faints orchild, if a history of serious diseases are present, if accompanied by fainting convulsions, respiratory loss if syncope occurred for no apparent reason out of the blue, all of a sudden - immediately call an ambulance. Even if a person quickly came to his senses, there is the risk of concussion and other injuries.

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