Thyroid disease oftenpayback for bad habits. Learn about the most common diseases of the thyroid gland - hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, goiter, thyrotoxicosis, toxic goiter - their symptoms and consequences
Environmental degradation, as well asquality of life have led to the emergence of new diseases and increasing older population - ranging from metabolism, and continuing to list indefinitely. A large part of diseases associated with impaired thyroid function, thanks to which the development and growth of the body, childbirth, puberty, and regulation of most of the processes of internal organs and systems. It thyroid disease today occupy leading positions in the number of patients on par with heart disease and diabetes. Which ones are the most common?
Hypothyroidism: metabolic disorder due to a decrease in hormone levels
The disease - the result of loweringnatural thyroid hormone levels. The development of hypothyroidism occurs very slowly, so that the patient turns to the experts in time.
The main symptoms of hypothyroidism:
- Significant weight gain.
- Swelling of the hands and feet.
- Lethargy, drowsiness, depression.
- Reduced physical activity.
- Increased skin dryness.
- Hair loss.
- Decreased libido.
- Severe menstrual period.
Also, patients complain of constant chilliness and deterioration of memory and concentration.
- Women age 30 to 50 years.
- Autoimmune disease.
- Operations on the thyroid gland.
- Treatment of iodine-containing drugs.
- Overdose of antithyroid drugs.
With regard to the treatment of disease - it depends on the patient's age and duration of hypothyroidism. Typically, this hormone therapy is lifelong and under strict supervision of the ECG.
Hyperthyroidism: I eat a lot and losing weight - a way to hyperstimulation metabolism
Increased secretion of thyroid hormones. Typically, the disease is associated with iodine deficiency, especially in childhood, and during embryonic development. Important role in the development of hyperthyroidism play selenium and copper.
Hyperthyroidism symptoms include:
- Goggle-eyed (one of the most obvious symptoms).
- Weight loss.
- Sweating and trembling limbs.
- Increased heartbeat.
- Frequent stools.
- Nervousness, irritability, tearfulness.
- Stuffiness and heat intolerance.
- Violation of the menstrual cycle.
Self-treatment of hyperthyroidism is unacceptable - treatment specialist should be engaged, after finding and eliminating the causes of disease.
Thyroiditis: a bacterial infection - a common cause of inflammation
Mostly, thyroiditis development occurs against bacterial infection.
Symptoms of acute thyroiditis:
- Enlarged cervical lymph nodes.
- Chills and fever.
- Pain in the neck region of the surface (front), radiating to the jaw and neck.
The disease can develop after a hemorrhage iniron, radiotherapy, trauma. thyroiditis Treatment takes place with the help of antibiotics and gidrokortikoidov. In severe cases, the absence of effect of conservative therapy, surgery may solve the problem.
Endemic goiter - iodine deficiency as the cause of endemic goiter
The development of the disease due to a deficiency of iodine in the environment that causes growths of thyroid tissue and to changes in its work.
- Basedow's disease - Uniform increase in cancer.
- nodular goiter - The presence of nodes in prostate weight.
- Mixed crop - The availability of sites, along with diffuse increase in cancer.
Symptoms of endemic goiter:
- Difficulty swallowing and breathing.
- Puffy face, the extension of the neck veins.
- Pupil dilation.
- Factors of endemic goiter:
- Hereditary factor.
- Deficiency of copper and cobalt (imbalance micronutrients) in the environment.
- Water pollution by nitrates and excess calcium in it.
- Admission medications (eg, potassium perchlorate), contributing to block the iodide supply to the thyroid cells.
- The impact of the processes of inflammation and infectious nature.
And so forth.
Graves' disease, as a consequence of thyrotoxicosis
The disease, which is accompanied by an increased activity of the thyroid gland.
Symptoms of Graves' disease:
- Hand tremors, irritability.
- Increased thyroid.
- Dramatic weight loss.
Typically, disease susceptible women after 35 years.
- Frequent stress.
- Infectious diseases.
- Abuse of the sun.
The main cause of the disease - an increasehormone production. Treatment is the administration of drugs that can slow down the excessive production of hormones. In advanced stages, surgical method.
Hyperthyroidism: an abnormal increase in the level of hormones
The disease is "poisoning" thyroid hormones. That is, increasing their level, accompanied by metabolic intensity.
The main symptoms of hyperthyroidism:
- The feeling of heat and sweating in any weather.
- Thirst, diarrhea, frequent urination.
- Thinning hair and hair loss.
- Infusion of blood to the face, neck and upper body.
- Excitation and aggressiveness, changes in the psyche.
- Shortness of breath, irregular heart work.
- Swelling around the eyes.
- Double vision and bulging.
Thyroid adenoma: a benign tumor and its consequences
This tumor can be characterizedmultiple nodules or be presented singly. At risk are usually women after forty years. The disease is a high level of production of thyroid hormones.
Symptoms of thyroid adenoma:
- Unexplained weight loss.
- Sudden mood swings.
- Intolerance of saunas, steam baths, generally high temperatures.
- Fatigue and sweating.
Diagnosis takes place in a complex. On the basis of symptoms alone diagnosis to put it is impossible. The final diagnosis (after inspection specialist and special analyzes) turns with prostate scan and biopsy.