Why there is an umbilical hernia in newborns, what are its symptoms and signs, can it give complications. Possible methods of treatment and elimination of a defect - umbilical hernia
Among the most frequent diagnoses thatState-of-the-art pediatricians, there is such a pathology as an umbilical hernia. This phenomenon occurs because of weakness of the umbilical ring or due to deformation of the anterior abdominal wall.
It can provoke its occurrence for a long timeIntra-abdominal pressure caused by a strong cough, constipation, prolonged crying. Peculiar catalysts are such diseases as hypotrophy and rickets, because they affect muscle tone, lowering it, and can lead to an umbilical hernia. Very often this defect occurs in premature infants.
Abdominal wall consists of skin, fattyFiber, aponeurosis, muscle groups and peritoneum. The main supporting layers are the muscular corset and aponeurosis. It is on their strength indicators that depends, there will be a hernia or not.
Differences in pathology in children
- It often occurs in the first weeks or months of life;
- Can be acquired, that is, appear after three years of age;
- Usually small sizes - up to 2 cm;
- Rarely causes discomfort or pain;
- Infringement (a complication that causes a hernia), which occurs in rare cases;
- A defect can self-heal;
- Conservative therapy is highly effective;
- Almost does not affect the physical activity of the baby.
Umbilical hernia can occur for a reasonWeakness of connective tissue, which is based on a lack of collagen. This affects the strength of other natural channels of the body - the femoral, inguinal and navel areas.
When the navel skin heals, there is still insideHollow space - the so-called umbilical ring. Babies often cry, and this condition is characterized by tummy tension. As a consequence, a hernial sac emerges through the umbilical ring.
Symptoms of umbilical hernia in newborns are veryManifest themselves clearly. The main of them, of course, is bulging in the navel. This phenomenon can diminish or disappear when the baby is lying down.
One of the signs is pain and pain when coughing or physical exertion, as well as expanding the umbilical ring. Sometimes there is nausea, which can result in vomiting.
- Weighed down heredity;
- Adverse effects on the body of a pregnant woman;
- Tension on crying and restlessness in the child;
- Disorders of the intestine - constipation, swelling;
- Diseases accompanied by coughing and making breathing difficult.
Danger of defect
Umbilical hernia can give a complication thatManifested infringement, inflammation, damage, mechanical intestinal obstruction and neoplasm. Usually, infringement occurs when the hernia is squeezed in the hernia gates during straining, coughing, etc.
Immediately the bowel swells and the volume of the injured organ increases. In this case, he can not straighten, and the condition is accompanied by severe abdominal pains, anxiety and sometimes vomiting.
It is urgent to call an ambulance, because the nextThe stage is the development of necrosis, that is, the necrosis of the intestine. In the future, there is peritonitis - inflammation of the peritoneum. In such cases, an emergency surgery is expected.
Treatment of umbilical hernia in newborns
As mentioned above, conservative methodsElimination of pathology is quite effective. They have been successfully used since the first weeks of the baby's life. As a rule, the hernia gradually begins to decrease, and the child can fully recover without additional therapy.
- Self-healing. In the process of correct development of the baby, the activity of the intestine is normalized. The child is actively moving. As a result, the anterior abdominal wall becomes much stronger. In this hernia can itself be cured. As a rule, this occurs up to 3 years;
- Strengthening of muscles with the help of massage. Such general procedures can be prescribed already at the 2-3 week of life. They are carried out easily and painlessly, do not make you nervous and do not cause crying in the child. Before you begin to perform a variety of movements, the hernia is corrected by pressing the finger, while the other hand is already making the necessary movements. A number of special techniques are performed on the abdominal muscles. The complex includes a variety of exercises, for example, circular strokes in the clockwise direction, as well as the course of the large intestine and oblique abdominal muscles. On the posterolateral surface of the chest, movements are carried out with brushes from top to bottom and forward. In this case, the navel must be hidden in the skin fold. The course of massage can take place both in the conditions of a polyclinic and at home;
- Exercise therapy. The task of such therapy is a restorative effect on the baby's body. Also strengthens the muscular corset, especially its oblique and straight muscles. In addition, the neuro-reflex excitability, which prevents intra-abdominal pressure, is normalized. It should be noted that the exercises are aimed at supporting psychomotor development. Umbilical hernia in newborns first inward, and then it is strengthened with a special bandage or band-aid and only then they begin to perform the exercises of exercise therapy;
- Lying position. This method is practiced very successfully. The child is simply put on the tummy. This position contributes to the escape of gases. Significantly increased motor activity, because the baby can easily move the trunk, handles and legs. This pose prevents the protrusion of the hernial sac and reduces intra-abdominal pressure. The child spreads 2-3 times a day on a hard surface. Do this usually before feeding for 10-15 minutes;
- Adhesive bandage. It is imposed by the treating or observing physician (pediatrician or surgeon). The child must stay with her for 10 days. The bandage is fixed with a wide band, about 4 cm, from one to the other in the lumbar region. The wear rate can be repeated up to 3 times. This method is used very rarely, since the product can irritate the delicate skin of the baby;
- A patch on the peribubular region. It is applied for several weeks, but after 2-3 days they change it. They bathe the baby every day, but the bandage is not removed;
- If conservative treatment was notSuccessful enough, and the one-year-old baby has an umbilical hernia, then resort to surgical intervention. The operation can also be carried out if there is a defect of too large a size. In the process, the doctor cuts the skin over the navel in the skin fold. The scar, which after this remains, is almost invisible;
- Bandage. It is used in conjunction with other methods of repairing the defect. He is dressed after restoring the hernia. This allows you to cicatrize the umbilical ring. In addition, he warns of infringement. This special belt reliably fixes the abdominal wall and the lower part of the waist. The bandage used for umbilical hernia of newborns looks like a soft elastic waistband with a special hernial limiter. It is easily washed and is hypoallergenic, has high wear resistance.
Any complex of measures begins to be performed only after the umbilical cord wound, but not earlier. This applies to both massage and other procedures.
Do not start treatment yourself. Only an observing physician can correctly diagnose and prescribe a course of therapy that will contribute to the speedy recovery of your baby.