Causes of pneumonia in newborns and symptoms of the disease. Diagnosis and treatment of intrauterine pneumonia: the prognosis and course of the disease. Recommendations for parents
Pneumonia is a disease of the lungs characterized byInflammatory process in their tissues. The disease affects the walls of the bronchi. Approximately 15% of premature newborn babies suffer from this pathology and about 2% of full-term babies.
That is, newborn children are often sick with pneumonia. You can detect the disease by symptomatology.
This disease can affect even an unborn baby. In this case, the intrauterine type of infection is diagnosed.
Intrauterine pneumonia in newbornsOccurs immediately after they are born. The main reason for the appearance of pathology is the mother's disease during pregnancy. If a future mother becomes infected with any respiratory infection, then viruses from her body can get to the fetus, for example, through blood or amniotic fluid. That is, congenital pathology is the result of unfavorable course of pregnancy.
The causes of intrauterine pneumonia in neonates:
- Congenital pathogenic factor - infection penetrated through the placenta;
- Intrauterine antenatal - from amniotic fluid to the lungs;
- Intranatal - penetration into the lungs of a child during birth through the mother's birth canal;
- Postnatal - infection after birth.
Provoke an inflammatory process canViruses, fungi, microbes (staphylococci, streptococci, etc.) and protozoa. In addition, anatomical and physiological features of the lungs, immaturity of the respiratory tract (especially in prematurity) predispose to the onset of this disease.
The risk factors include bleeding during pregnancy, the passage of amniotic fluid before the due date, acute and chronic diseases of the woman in the period of bearing the baby.
The reasons that can lead to such aAilment, are quite diverse. Sometimes there is a so-called combined pneumonia in newborns - the disease provokes several adverse factors. Of course, the course of such a disease poses a serious danger to the life of the newly born baby.
In modern medicine, there are two ways of infecting children:
- Bronchogenic - pathogenic microflora enters the body directly through the lungs. Usually, infection occurs during the birth process;
- Hematogenous - the fetus becomes infected from the infectedMother through her blood. This type of transmission is much less common than the first. However, there is a positive side here, for example, a future mother will feel unwell and turn to a doctor, and he, in turn, will select an adequate treatment that will help both the woman and her baby.
Congenital pneumonia in newborns: symptomatology
The first signs of an ailment are usually: Hypotension, respiratory insufficiency, pale gray skin. Feeding results in vomiting, after a few days there is a spasm of the intestine. When listening to the lungs, small bubbling rales are noticeable.
The disease lasts about a month. However, unfortunately, the consequences can lead to a fatal outcome.
Sick children are sluggish and sleepy, they have shortness of breath, cough. Often the disease is accompanied by symptoms of cardiovascular failure, there is bloating.
Pathology is very difficult for newbornsChildren, because their immunity is not yet formed, and the anatomical features of the respiratory tract only contribute to the development of congenital pneumonia. It is for this reason that newborns are at risk for developing pathologies in the lungs.
When intrauterine pneumonia is detected afterBirth of a baby and an extract from the hospital for a month, a local pediatrician and a nurse will regularly visit the house to inspect the condition of the baby. Parents should carefully monitor the child, pay attention to a variety of points that can help cure him, for example, often regurgitation, liquid stool, breast-failure. It is necessary to pay attention to cough and the nature of liquid discharge from the nose.
From the cause that triggered the pathology, and the extent of lung damage depends on the clinical picture:
- Aspiration pneumonia in newborns,Caused by bacteria, progresses smoothly and often begins with a rise in temperature to 38 °. After this, a moist cough appears, sometimes with purulent sputum, pain in the chest;
- If a chemical has got into the bronchi, thenBegins intoxication (high fever, palpitations, shortness of breath). The sputum becomes frothy, pinkish. Also there is a cyanosis of the skin due to a poor supply of oxygen in the tissue;
- When foreign bodies get into the bronchial treeCough becomes reflex and painful. Then it stops, it is replaced by progressive inflammatory processes in the tissues of the lungs. This condition is particularly dangerous, as when overlapping large bronchi, most of the pulmonary parenchyma is turned off.
Diagnosis of the disease
Since infants should be treated in conditionsHospital, then the survey will be conducted in the same place. Children are hospitalized with their mothers or they are the parents in the hospital throughout the day, leaving the baby only for the night. A blood test will be made, even if it was performed earlier in the polyclinic. Also always spend a roentgenography of lungs.
To learn about the state of other organs and systems,Prescribe additional studies, for example, take blood from the vein, urine analysis. If there are indications, other procedures are carried out, for example, electrocardiography. The prognosis of the course of the disease depends on the above indicators.
Treatment of patients with pneumonia
A sick child must beHospitalized. Since the baby is very weak and can not actively suck the breast, you need to feed it more often than usual. Also, the crumb is periodically rotated from side to side to prevent stagnation in the lungs. It is necessary to remove mucus from the respiratory tract.
An important role in the treatment is given to antibiotics, which stimulates and vitamin therapy. Well-known mustard plasters, inhalation, ultraviolet irradiation, massage, therapeutic baths.
The course of treatment is chosen only by a qualifiedSpecialist, guided by the form and severity of the course of the disease, the child's condition and its anatomical features. It should be noted that without treatment with antibiotics, any type of pneumonia can not be treated, but infants can not drink them, so they prescribe drugs in the form of injections.
With the progression of pathology, theMedicines are replaced by others. Consequences of congenital pneumonia, concerning weight, in newborns are characterized by a decrease in body weight or small increments, but it is not worth experiencing, since after the elimination of symptoms, appetite improves.
Inhalations of oxygen may be prescribed. To make the lungs better cleaned, they can add herbs or special medicinal medicines.
If the symptoms of intoxication are bright enoughExpressed, for example, the baby refuses to eat, the temperature does not drop, then an intravenous fluid, i.e., a dropper, is prescribed. Usually it is saline solutions and glucose, but the doctor can add other useful substances.
It does not do without antipyretic and expectorant drugs. Sometimes use broths of medicinal herbs that have the ability to dilute sputum.
You may need to introduce an immunoglobulin - a protein that has a protective effect - ready antibodies that will fight the pathogen.
Prognosis for the congenital form. How is pneumonia in newborns?
If the treatment is started on time, the inflammation does notWill greatly affect the overall condition. Without therapy, after the subsidence of the acute process, the period of asthenia is observed - the child becomes sluggish, drowsy, loses appetite.
Sometimes inflammation spreads to healthyEven with effective treatment. This is due to the anatomical structure of the lung tissue, so pulmonary edema or pulmonary insufficiency may form.
Inflammation can spread to the pleura,Then there will be pleurisy, which will make breathing even more difficult. In very severe cases, destruction of tissues occurs in the affected areas, then cavities are formed in the lungs.
Remember that you yourself can not diagnose or prescribe an adequate treatment, so do not delay the visit to the doctor!