Why vaccinate children? What diseases does vaccination protect? From what and at what age is the child vaccinated? Schedule of vaccinations
Tuberculosis, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, measles,Poliomyelitis, pertussis, parotitis, hepatitis B - diseases that are included in the vaccination schedule for children. With the help of such simple methods you can protect the body from the most common and dangerous diseases and infections.
Thanks to the measures taken, he will receive artificial immunity to the disease, which will protect him from both the disease itself and its consequences.
It is necessary to strictly observe the timing of vaccination andRevaccination. The schedule of preventive vaccinations for newborns and older children is based on the risk of morbidity, age and health status, and the formation of immunity.
For example, immunity to measles is developed immediately after the first vaccination, and in order to protect themselves from poliomyelitis, it is necessary to repeat the procedure for three months.
The first vaccinations are received in the maternity hospital in the first day of life. Immediately vaccinated against hepatitis B, and 3-4 days later - from tuberculosis.
- 12 hours after the baby was born, the first vaccine is administered - from hepatitis B;
- From 3 to 7 days inoculated from tuberculosis (BCG);
- In 1 month they perform a second vaccination against hepatitis B;
- At the age of 3 months, a combinedVaccine immediately from several diseases: diphtheria, pertussis polio and tetanus. They are divided into two inoculations - the first includes a vaccine against three diseases, and from poliomyelitis is administered separately;
- At 4 months, the above manipulations are repeated;
- When the baby is six months old, he is again vaccinated with combined vaccinations, but includes hepatitis B;
- At the age of 1 year, the combined drug is administered immediately from three diseases: rubella, measles and mumps;
- Next time the doctor should be visited in a year and a half, when the calendar is scheduled for revaccination from poliomyelitis, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus;
- At 20 months, they are revaccinated from poliomyelitis;
- The next inoculation the child will receive only in 6 years. This time, too, use a combination drug. A similar vaccine the child received in a year;
- At the age of 7 years, the first revaccination against tuberculosis and the second from tetanus and diphtheria (ADS);
- In 13 years, vaccinations are done selectively, for example, if a child does not receive a vaccine against hepatitis, then I introduce them. It is worth noting that this age is being vaccinated against rubella, but only to girls;
- In a year, that is, after reaching the age of 14, revaccination is carried out from poliomyelitis, tetanus and diphtheria, and tuberculosis.
On this calendar of vaccinations for children ends, but it is worth mentioning that adults should conduct revaccinations from tetanus and diphtheria every ten years.
Newborns and older children whoGet sick and recover from the disease, do not vaccinate. After the procedure, the baby leads a normal lifestyle, but parents should watch him. In case of fever or other ailments, see a doctor.
The vaccination schedule provides for vaccinations against the following diseases:
- Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease that affects mainly the lungs;
- Hepatitis B is an infectious viral disease that affects the liver. In a number of cases it develops into a chronic form and causes cirrhosis of the liver;
- Poliomyelitis is an acute infection caused by a virus. Leads to paresis and paralysis;
- Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that affectsRespiratory tract, heart, kidneys, nervous system and other organs. Prior to the introduction of mandatory vaccination, this disease in most cases led to a fatal outcome;
- Pertussis is an acute bacterial infection characterized by paroxysmal cough;
- Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. It affects the central nervous system, causes seizures and asphyxia;
- Measles - a viral disease characterized by a rashAnd an increase in lymph nodes. Dangerous in the first trimester of pregnancy, as it can badly affect the normal development of the child, up to vices and even miscarriage;
- Parotitis is a viral infection that affects the salivary glands and the nervous system. A special danger for boys, as it can affect the testicles and lead to infertility.
Schedule of vaccinations for Mantoux test for children
Mantoux reaction is the main preventive method for testing for tuberculosis. The sample allows to determine the presence of the disease in the body.
An annual survey using a dermalSamples of the mantle are children, from the age of 1 year, and adolescents. Only healthy babies are allowed. Planned mantle is held regularly, despite the reaction from the previous sample.
With the introduction of tuberculin (a substance used to determine the presence of the disease), swelling forms in the upper layer of the skin, a peculiar "Button". It is very important to properly take care of this place, because prohibited manipulations can affect the result. You can not smear it with peroxide, zelenka and other antiseptics.
It is important not to let this place come into contact with waterOr other liquid. Also, do not glue the wound with a band-aid or repair it with other methods. You can not allow scratching. When the doctor evaluates the result, the wound, if it formed a sore, can be treated, like any other skin lesion, using all the traditional means.
What can affect the Mantoux reaction?
- Allergic dermatitis, food, drug allergy;
- Recent infections;
- Chronic pathology;
- Immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacteria;
- Skin sensitivity;
- The phase of the menstrual cycle (in females);
- The balance of the diet;
- Elevated background radiation in the area of residence;
- Harmful emissions of chemical production;
- Individual intolerance to tuberculin;
- Violation of the sampling technique: inadequate transportation, storage, non-standard or poor-quality inventory, inaccuracy in the technique of setting and reading the reaction.
Before any vaccination or revaccination, it is necessary to visit a doctor who will examine the child and give permission for manipulation.
The practice of refusingInoculations, although it is not justified. In any case, the vaccinated organism is capable of rebuffing the disease and even if the baby catches one or another infection, it will proceed in mild form and will not give complications. In addition, preventive vaccinations can stop the epidemic and even prevent this phenomenon.
The decision on the expediency of vaccination for a child can only be made by the parent. However, dear parents, before making such a decision, properly weigh everything "behind"And"against"!