Why do children often have food poisoning. The main causes of poisoning. Signs of toxic infection. Treatment of intoxication. First aid for food poisoning. Preventive measures
Often, food poisoning in children appearsBecause of food with microbial content. This phenomenon is called toxicoinfection and in children it is more severe than in adults, because at this age both digestive functions and immune defense are not yet fully formed.
In children, toxins are absorbed in the gastrointestinal tractTract almost instantly. The reasons are directly related to food, mainly with meat, fish and dairy dishes, because in them, most often under adverse conditions, develop intestinal sticks, staphylococcus and salmonella. Also, the toxicoinfection can be caused by the use of dirty fruits (fruits, vegetables, berries).
Cause of poisoning
Food poisoning in the child is quite frequentphenomenon. This is explained by the fact that the enzymatic system and the protective functions of the gastrointestinal tract are not ready enough, and not only the inattention of parents.
The most common reasons are:
- Food allergy, accompanied by intoxication;
- Introduction of complementary foods. New products are still unfamiliar to the digestive system, and it can perceive them hostile;
- Contact path - dirty toys, unwashed hands, etc .;
- Contacts with an infected E. coli by a person who has access to a child;
- In rare cases, poisoning can be transmitted from a nursing mother to a baby when she herself suffers from a toxic infection.
Food poisoning in the vast majorityOf cases is manifested as diarrhea. If the baby persistent diarrhea, lasting more than 2 days, then there is a high probability of dehydration. Also possible: fever, weakness and lethargy, nausea and vomiting.
The incidence of incidence falls on a warm season - summer. High temperatures, fruit availability, complicated storage conditions make this time of year a kind of culprit of intestinal infections.
Usually in children, poisoning occurs for the following reasons:
- Raw, unboiled water;
- Dairy products, especially thermally unprocessed milk. Unwashed fruits and vegetables;
- Cakes with cream, cakes, etc. Most often, staphylococci are found in them;
- Sausage, raw eggs;
- Products stored in cellars (potatoes, carrots, etc.). On their skins often there is an anaerobic rod, which is transferred by rodents.
To summarize, it can be said that the main causes of health problems in children are dirt and improper storage of food.
Signs of food poisoning
Symptoms of toxic infections occur suddenly. Usually a healthy baby becomes abruptly flaccid, capricious, and skin covers turn pale. These phenomena arise from the rapid spread of toxin in the intestinal tract.
The acute course of the disease is indicated by pain,Stinging and colic in the abdomen, diarrhea with an admixture of mucus, vomiting and fever. If the measures are not taken in a timely manner, then the poisoning becomes severe.
Symptoms that require urgent medical attention:
- Diarrhea lasting more than 2 hours. When there is blood in the stool, help is needed immediately;
- Severe vomiting (usually 1 time per hour);
- The face is pale, lips acquire a blue hue;
- General poor health;
- Vomiting is observed immediately after drinking.
The following signs also require medical care, but you can get by by calling the doctor home:
- Stomach ache. Very young children (babies) writhe, raise their legs to the abdomen and try to find a comfortable posture to relieve colic;
- Yellowness of the proteins of the eyeballs;
- The temperature is above 37.5, which lasts longer than 4 hours;
- Dark urine;
- Nausea, lack of appetite;
- Vomiting after eating;
- Periodic diarrhea (more than 2-3 times a day);
- Saliva becomes viscous, and dry mouth develops.
Treatment of toxicinfections
At the first sign of such adverseUrgently need to take action. First you need to wash your stomach. This will help get rid of toxins that have not yet absorbed into the intestines. The earlier they are withdrawn, the less consequences will be left behind by the disease.
It should be clarified that washing to children under 1 year oldIs done either in a medical institution or under the supervision of a doctor at home. The event uses warm boiled water: children from 8 months to 1 year - 20 ml per 1 kg of body weight; Up to 6 years - 15 ml per kg; Up to 14 years - 10 ml per kg.
After such a plentiful drink, vomiting will arise -Normal physiological reaction after the washing procedure. In this way the body tries to purify itself. But if there is no vomiting, this indicates a severe course of the disease.
In this situation, you must immediately call an ambulance. In a medical institution, washing will be done more professionally, and in some cases, intravenous drip solutions may be needed.
Regardless of the type of poisoning (food, medicines, etc.), sorbents are used. Now the most widely used drug is called Enterosgel. The medicine is produced in the form of a paste.
Enterosgel is indicated for use even in infants. If the poisoning passed to the child from the nursing mother, then she too can take such a drug. Activated carbon and Smecta will also be effective, but they can be used only for children over 7 years of age.
What you need to drink with food poisoning
The complex of treatment includes hydrationProcedures, that is a copious drink. However, ordinary water is not suitable, you need to use salt solutions. You can make them yourself or buy a ready-made powder.
At home, it is recommended to cookSuch solution for oral administration: 250 ml of water (boiled, purified) +? Ch. Salt + 3 tbsp. L. Sugar + a glass of orange juice (alternative - water with the addition of vitamin C). In 500 ml of this solution there is everything necessary to restore the water balance.
This recipe is suitable only for children over 5years. Among the ready-made products, a solution of Rehydron, sold in pharmacies. It can be given even to the youngest children. Drink such liquid in small sips throughout the period of intoxication.
First aid for food poisoning
It is necessary to closely monitor the condition of the baby, and if worsened, call an ambulance or a doctor.
At home, the following measures should be taken:
- Provide a plentiful drink to prevent dehydration using the aforementioned saline solutions. Children from 5 years can drink a decoction of chamomile or dog rose, as well as weak green tea;
- Give sorbents that will absorb toxins and remove them from the body. But they should not be used for intestinal obstruction and gastrointestinal bleeding;
- Adhere to a strict diet throughout the wholePeriod of the disease. At first, it is necessary to exclude any food. On the second day, when acute symptoms will pass, light soup, rice broth, rusks, porridges on the water are allowed. Diets should be taken about a week, in some cases - two;
- Do not give antibiotics and drugs that fix the stool, as they can further worsen the condition.
Prevention of food poisoning
Preventive measures are fairly simple and consist only in respecting the rules of personal, general and household hygiene:
- Wash hands with soap after visiting the toilet, public places, streets, contact with animals;
- Products that are prepared for children must beHeat treatment. Both cottage cheese and milk, and fruits with vegetables should be prepared. Something is baked, boiled, some products are simply given off with boiling water;
- Perishable food should be kept in a manner;
- A person with symptoms of poisoning should not cook, but also have contact with the child;
- Do not store food in the open. If this is not possible, then it must be covered from insects and contacts with air;
- Food storage should be kept in perfect cleanliness;
- Do not use swollen and cloudy preserves, including home preservation;
- Monitor the shelf life of products;
- Eliminate the drinking of raw water and milk;
- Fight with insects (cockroaches, flies) and rodents.
These simple rules help to prevent foodpoisoning. Compliance with hygiene standards does not require much time and effort. In addition, all the rules are universal, so help reduce the risk of poisoning in adults.
Watch for the well-being of your children and at the first symptoms take immediate action!