What immunizations are required for the child and when they should be doing. General questions of children vaccination
The issue of vaccinations is one of the most urgentSince the birth of the baby and requires a special responsibility of the parents, since it is about the health of the growing child. How can we figure out which vaccinations children make and do not miss the vaccination schedule, we will discuss in our article.
To vaccinate or not?
To date, an unequivocal opinion on the issue of "Vaccinations for children: for and against" does not exist. The number of opponents of vaccinations is growing, as, in their opinion, vaccination harms the health of the baby. The rationale for this opinion is present, in connection with the increase in cases of dangerous health consequences after the introduction of substandard vaccines.
There is also a more radical view that vaccinations are generally harmful and have a destructive effect on the still fragile immunity of the child.
At the same time, doctors firmly advocate "behindVaccination and believe that theirAbsence can cause serious illness in the future. Since some diseases are still quite common and the possibility of infection is very high.
To decide whether to do vaccinations to their children is necessary only for parents, we will try to understand their reasonableness.
Preparation is important!
Before you go to vaccinate, there are several factors to consider. First of all, it is necessary to show the child to the district pediatrician so that he will inspect and assess the current state of health.
Since one of the main rules of vaccinationIs that the vaccine should be given to a healthy child. If your baby sneezes, coughs, in no case should not be vaccinated at this moment. It is necessary to wait for complete recovery, and afterwards go to the vaccination room.
It is worth paying special attention to the doctor and if your child is prone to allergies. In this case, it may be necessary to consult a specialist and prepare an individual vaccination schedule.
Before going to the district therapistAlso pass urine and blood tests. Since only in case of good results you will be able to get a referral for vaccination. If necessary, the doctor also prescribe antihistamine treatment, which is usually carried out a few days before and after the vaccination.
The list of diseases that provide for mandatory vaccination includes:
- Hepatitis B - has a viral nature andInfectious nature. It affects the liver and with the transition to a chronic stage can cause cirrhosis. Vaccination for children from group A hepatitis is optional and is recommended for children attending kindergarten;
- Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that spreads with the help of pathogenic bacteria and affects the lungs;
- Poliomyelitis is a viral infection, which causes numerous pareses in the child's body or paralysis of the limbs;
- Pertussis is a disease with an acute bacterial basis, which is infectious in nature and is accompanied by severe attacks of cough;
- Diphtheria is an infectious disease thatSpreads with the help of bacteria. The upper respiratory tract, nervous system, heart and kidneys enter the affected area. Without the use of the vaccine, in most cases, death is possible;
- Tetanus - affects the central nervous system, in severe stages causes attacks of suffocation and convulsions. Refers to infectious and spreads with the help of bacteria;
- Measles - a disease of an acute viral nature, which has symptoms of intoxication, causes a rash and reddening of the nasopharynx. Disease is dangerous because of the possibility of severe complications;
- Rubella is an infectious viral disease, withWhich appears a rash of red and significantly increases lymph nodes. The disease is most dangerous for pregnant women, especially in the first trimester, as it can lead to miscarriage or cause severe malformations in the unborn child;
- Parotitis - affects the central nervous system and salivary glands. The greatest danger is for boys, as it affects the genitals and can cause infertility in the future.
As for scarlet fever, which is consideredA fairly common childhood disease, then after it the antibodies in the body are produced themselves. Therefore, the inoculation against scarlet fever in young children is not included in the list of mandatory.
The Ministry of Health approved the vaccination of children, which involves a schedule of sequential vaccines for the gradual development of immunity to various diseases.
Its main principles:
- Begin the course of vaccination is necessary in the first 12 hours of the child's life. It is during this period that a newborn is vaccinated for the development of antibodies to group B hepatitis;
- In the period from 3 to 7 days of life, the baby should be vaccinated with BCG vaccine, which guarantees protection from tuberculosis;
- After 30 days of life, a repeat vaccination against Group B hepatitis is needed to successfully prevent the development of the disease;
- Inoculation to a child at the age of 3 monthsPrevents the development of four diseases. The DTP vaccine is complex and allows to develop immunity against pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus. And the second vaccine helps prevent the development of poliomyelitis;
- When the child is 4.5 months old, the previous stage of vaccination is repeated;
- The next course of vaccination is at age 6Months and includes the third stage of vaccinations against poliomyelitis, diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus. Plus, this vaccine is once again administered a vaccine against group B hepatitis;
- At the age of one year, it is time to vaccinate against mumps, rubella and measles, which is administered in a single vaccine;
- At 1.5 years, another vaccination of DTP and polio is being conducted;
- At the 20th month of life, another stage of vaccination against poliomyelitis takes place;
- After that there is a solid break in the vaccination calendar and the child receives the next vaccine for mumps, rubella and measles when he turns 6;
- At 7 years, two revaccinations are suggested: BCG (from tuberculosis) and ADS (against diphtheria and tetanus);
- At the age of 13, vaccinations are selective. Girls are vaccinated against rubella;
- At the age of 14, another stage of vaccination against poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria and tuberculosis is carried out;
- Next, every 10 years, you need to get vaccinated against diphtheria and tetanus.
Particular attention should be paid to the condition of the child after the introduction of the vaccine. Therefore, it is better not to rush straight home, but to sit in the hospital for half an hour, in case of an unforeseen reaction of the body.
Upon returning home, you need to try on several occasionsTemperature baby with an interval of 1-2 hours. As a rule, it can go up, and doctors recommend that it be knocked down at 37.5 degrees. It should give the child antipyretic drugs and often drink warm sweet tea.
The site of the injection should also be inspectedattentively. It can cause redness, as well as a small seal or bump. And do not forget that the place of vaccination can not be wetted and allowed to comb for several days.
A lump and compaction after vaccination in a child should take place within a week. If after a week this reaction continues or worsen, be sure to consult a doctor.
Whether it is necessary to do all vaccinations to children or not, it is unquestionable to decide the parents. After all, who besides them feels better that the baby is necessary.
But rely solely on naturalInstincts still can not. It is worthwhile to listen to the opinion of specialists, and then to draw conclusions. Remember that in your hands the life and health of a little man who needs care!