What are the causes of rashes in children? Symptoms of diseases characterized by a rash. Treatment and prevention of rashes
appearance Rashes on the body of a child - An alarming sign for parents. This phenomenon may indicate more than 100 diseases, some of which are quite common. However, in some cases it can be a sign of a serious pathology that threatens the health and even the life of the baby.
That's why when you have any anxiety symptoms you need to contact the pediatrician. Besides, Rash on the body in an adult Family member is also dangerous if there is a child in the house.
What causes a rash?
The causes of the rash are conventionally divided into several main types:
- Allergic reactions due to use orSurface contact with the allergen. In this case, the cause can be anything. It is worth analyzing the diet and then for certain it will be possible to identify the cause of the allergy. In addition, the local reaction is also observed with a mosquito bite, and multiple bites can sometimes be mistaken for a rash;
- Diseases of blood vessels and blood. Lesions are usually hemorrhagic (arise from hemorrhages in the skin) and can appear as bruises of different colors and shades, and as a small-scale rash, it depends on the pathology;
- Parasitic diseases. Varied parasites often cause rashes. For example, all known scabies are provoked by a tick, which makes moves in the skin of the wrist, between the fingers, in the genital area. Strong itching starts in the affected areas. Scabies are very contagious and must be visited by a dermatologist before treatment;
- Improper hygiene. Usually a newborn has a rash on the body for this simple reason. The same can be said about babies and children up to the year, which are now constantly in diapers. In infancy, a very frequent phenomenon is a sweating. It occurs due to the characteristics of the baby's skin or due to hygiene defects. There is a sweating due to the strong wrapping of the baby, wet diapers and diapers, a rare bathing and washing;
- Infections. In this case, its other manifestations will be seen: fever, runny nose, sore throat, cough, nausea and vomiting, chills, etc. In such a case, skin lesions may be the first sign of infection or may occur only a few days after the onset of the disease. The most common diseases that include a rash in their symptoms are chicken pox (chicken pox), rubella, scarlet fever and measles.
The most dangerous of all infections isMeningococcal. It is caused by a bacterium that leads to nasopharyngitis - an easily treatable disease. However, in some cases, it provokes meningitis - inflammation of the membranes of the brain, or blood infection (meningococcemia).
When infected, the rash appears on the body asHemorrhage and is accompanied by a strong fever. This pathology is very dangerous, because from the onset of the disease to the death in the absence of treatment is only a few hours.
Therefore, with the slightest suspicion, the child is immediately rushed to the hospital, so that they immediately start therapy. Timely treatment started in 80-90% of cases ends safely.
Below we will consider what diseases are characterized by a rash and how this or another disease manifests itself.
Measles is a viral infection, which, as a rule,Not immediately betray themselves. Usually the diagnosis can be made only after 2-4 days, when the temperature has already increased and catarrhal symptoms have appeared (runny nose, cough, reddening of the throat).
The rash is spreading from the top down: first, the face and head are affected, then the torso and hands, then the pelvis and legs. The spots in this case are slightly convex, large and sometimes merge.
Chicken pox (chicken pox). Rashes occur on the face, head, trunk, butCan also be localized on other parts of the body. At first they are red and slightly protrude above the skin, then they become transparent bubbles, the contents of which become turbid as the disease progresses.
The size of the bubbles does not exceed 5 mm. After a while they dry up and in their place crusts are formed. The windy skin rash on the body itches, but you can not let the children touch it, since after damaging the papule, a scar in the form of a pit remains in its place.
Scarlet fever. At first, the disease resembles an ordinary sore throat. The rash appears only on the second day as small dots that cover the entire body. Especially strong clusters are observed in the bend of elbows, in the armpits, groin, in the lower abdomen. The skin is red, slightly swollen and hot. After a few days (2-3) all the symptoms of the disease pass, and the skin begins to peel off.
Rubella. The disease is accompanied by signs of intoxication, an increase in the occipital lymph nodes and fever. The rash looks like specks of up to 5 mm in diameter. In a few hours they cover the whole body.
This state lasts for up to 3 days, and thenDisappears without a trace. Places of greatest concentration: folds of hands and feet, as well as buttocks. It is worth noting that this disease is a great danger to pregnant women, because it affects the fetus very badly.
Allergy. Rashes occur suddenly, may be accompanied byA strong runny nose, itching, lachrymation. The eruptions are clearly visible and embossed. To eliminate this phenomenon you need to take antiallergic drugs that will relieve and all the unpleasant symptoms.
Itching rash occurs on the body with scabies. Eruptions look like dots, which are often located in pairs approximately 2-3 mm apart. Localized between the fingers, on the surface of the abdomen.
Bites. They are often confused with a rash. At the site of the bite there is an itchy red tubercle - a papule. However, the doctor immediately determines that this is not a pathological rash.
What to do?
If there is a lesion of the skin,Call a doctor at home, so as not to infect others, because the cause can serve as an easily transmitted infection (usually a rash in this case itchy). Also, you should not allow pregnant women to get sick until the diagnosis is confirmed. If there is a suspicion of a meningococcal infection, then you need to call an ambulance immediately.
Do not use any coloring solutions,For example, zelenok, or ointment, so that the doctor can establish the correct diagnosis. In the event that the rash has occurred due to contact with certain tissues or household chemicals, you should stop using it, replace it with hypoallergenic.
What will the doctor say?
The detected viral infection usually does not requireSpecific treatment, but with the bacterial prescribe antibiotics. Elimination of the allergic condition consists in isolating the baby from the allergen, taking antihistamines, glucocorticosteroids and other medications.
Based on the condition of the small patient, the reasonsPathology and severity of the disease, funds are prescribed in certain forms, for example, it may be an ointment from a rash that has arisen on the body, or tablets / capsules, and in some cases, injections.
When the rash is provoked by a disease of blood or blood vessels, the child is sent to the hematologist. Scabies are treated by a dermatologist, appointing not only a course of therapy, but also a number of anti-epidemic measures.
There is a vaccine for meningococcal infection. Allergies very rarely occur in the newborn, infants or preschool children. Those inclined to such reactions should be under the supervision of an allergist.
Clothing, bed linen, towels should beFrom natural fabrics. It is better to exclude the use of air conditioners for laundry. Cosmetics and all hygiene products, powder should be exclusively childrens.
If the baby has a red rash on the body orAny other lesions, you need to see a doctor. You can call a doctor at home if there is a suspicion of a contagious infection, or deliver it to the clinic yourself.
But if the child's condition deteriorates sharply, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance or transport the patient to the nearest hospital on their own.
Do not miss the moment of the rash and notDo self-medication even if, in your opinion, you know how to treat a child. Timely contact with a doctor can save valuable time and save your child's health.