Causes of torticollis and types of illness. Symptoms of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment in children torticollis
Krivosheya is one of the most unpleasantOrthopedic defects. The disease prevents the child from turning his head and looking normally, and in severe situations the face becomes deformed and disability occurs. Pathology is rapidly progressing and causes many complications.
Types of torticollis
Krivosheya, developing in infants, has several types, it can be congenital or acquired.
For reasons that triggered the development of pathology, the disease is divided into:
- Cutaneous - defeat of the skin and subcutaneous tissue;
- Desmogenic - due to inflammatory processes in the neck (abscesses, limadenites, phlegmon);
- Myogenic - the muscles are affected;
- Neurogenic - a pathology of receptor muscular-nervous apparatus, which in the future is accompanied by a violation of tone;
- Arthrogenic - the joints of the cervical spine have been damaged;
- Osteogenic - the bone-cartilage apparatus suffers;
- Installation - develops due to a long stay of the child in one position;
- Spastic - the form of the muscular, is also considered a form of dystonia.
Causes of the appearance of the disease
The main sources of the disease are well known inModern medicine. The baby's crib is formed when the sternocleidomastoid muscle is damaged, which is responsible for head movements (bends, nods, slopes).
Congenital muscular pathology is fraught with the fact thatStill inside the womb at the fetal the neck is shortened due to underdevelopment. The disease can occur because of incorrect positioning of the baby in the uterus for a long time.
In the process of giving birth to torticollis is formed whenDamage resulting from birth trauma and accompanied by rupture, stretching, hemorrhage or rough work of doctors, for example, when sipping at the head. Affect the development of the disease can pelvic presentation of the fetus, because in this case, there is an incorrect removal and tipping the head of the newborn.
A baby can get cranky because of a prolonged stay in one position or as a result of lying on an unsuitable bed.
Spasmodic torticollis in the child may occurAgainst the background of diseases of the nervous system, intrauterine hypoxia, birth trauma, after a long stay in one position. The main factor is the damage to the skeletal muscles in the neck. Very often in such children after birth, there are spasms caused by a violation of blood supply or hypoxia.
This form of pathology may not manifest itself inFirst months of a child's life. The baby can turn and tilt his head at 2-3 months of age. But then the symptoms quickly progress, causing a persistent spasm of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. In this situation, treatment is significantly hampered.
Symptoms of pathology
Krivosheya in newborns has pronouncedSigns. The muscular form manifests itself 2-3 weeks after birth, but is characterized by imperceptible first symptoms, so it can be detected by experienced parents or an orthopedist.
After a few weeks, the baby has a thickening and tightening of the neck on one side, in the middle or lower part of the neck.
In the future, signs of violation will be manifested brighter. At palpation the child will become whimsical, will wrinkle, at a turn of a head - to cry, or can not execute movement.
When the manifestations are already expressed, the head deviatesIn the affected side, and the face - to a healthy one. If the treatment is not started in time, the affected side will become compacted and shorten, and with time will atrophy. The skull also suffers. It deforms, its surface is smoothened on the affected side.
There is an asymmetry of the head, it is fixed in the wrong position. In severe cases, it raises the shoulder, and the brain and facial sections of the skull are very deformed.
Muscular torticollis from the back of the infant form scoliosis, the muscles are deformed, skull asymmetry in the cervical and ear regions is observed.
A specialist should be examined, that is, an orthopedic doctor. He visually assesses the correctness of setting the head, palps the skeleton, compares the patient with a healthy side, correctly sets the head.
If additional diagnosis is required, x-rays of the cervical spine are used, and in some cases, MRI.
Treatment of muscular torticollis in children
The course of therapy is a conservative approach, because the damaged muscles can be pulled out and developed due to their compliance.
- Special massage with curvature, aimed at increasing muscle tone, activating blood circulation and eliminating inflammation;
- Special piling on the side for stretching by position;
- The use of orthopedic structures, for example, the collar of Shantz;
- Use of lamps of solux, warmer, electrophoresis;
- Laying the child in a special position during sleep with the help of rollers and rolled towels, which are placed under his back.
If the disease has a severe course, pronounced defects, surgical intervention is not excluded.
On average, you can eliminate the violation in six months. During this time there is a gradual stretching of the damaged side and alignment. During the operation, the rehabilitation period lasts from 2 months.
Operative methods of treatment are used for childrenOlder than 2 years in the presence of severe dermogenetic defects. The muscle is lengthened artificially and special orthopedic products are applied. The patient is prescribed exercise therapy (LFK), massage, gymnastics. Rehabilitation measures are aimed at raising the tone, stretching and developing the affected side.
If the treatment is started in time, the prognosisMore than favorable - it disappears completely. In the absence of therapy, there is a persistent asymmetry and deformation of the skull bones, degeneration and shortening of the muscle, disruption of the musculoskeletal system, disability.
Parents can also take part in the process,For example, doing with the baby special exercises, for example, to sit the babe in a chair and stand behind him. On the head put their left hand, and the right is placed on the shoulder, then smoothly head is taken to the left. In the presence of resistance, it is not worth the effort.
Such an exercise must be carried out eachDay to relax the muscles of the neck. Take the manipulation is to listen to the sensations of the child. The head must be deflected in the direction opposite to its rotation.
There is another option: Fingers of the left hand knock on the damaged muscle for a minute. It is necessary to make sure that it relaxes. After this, the head is maximally taken to the shoulder, but excludes pain.
Non-drug treatment options for torticollis
There are other methods of treating infants, which can be combined with the main ones:
- Hirudotherapy - treatment with leeches. In this situation, they are applied to the neck area, which can significantly improve blood supply to the muscles;
- Visit the dolphinarium. In practice, it is proved that such therapy is very effective in treating vegetovascular dystonia, stuttering, cerebral palsy and torticollis;
- Soothing medicinal plants will removeTension and relax the muscles. For example, you can prepare a healing collection of yarrow, motherwort, peppermint, chamomile and walnut. However, for young children, many herbs are contraindicated, so it is necessary to initially visit a supervising physician and consult with him on this matter;
- The fruits of juniper have proved themselves well in the treatment of circulatory dystonia;
- It is necessary to take walks in the fresh air;
- It will help hardening, yoga, swimming.
All of the above methods will be effective inComplex treatment and will bring the expected result. Effectively treated as an adjusting torticollis, and other forms of the disease. At home, parents should constantly do the child massage, and after him, therapeutic gymnastics. Physiotherapeutic procedures and special medical massage take place in a medical setting.
All activities should focus onRelaxation and stretching of the affected muscle. As a result, such conservative methods can get rid of a serious enough disease, which is accompanied by severe consequences.