Varieties and causes of strabismus in children. Is it possible to correct strabismus in children? Methods of treatment of strabismus in children. Covert, convergent, divergent strabismus in children
If you believe doctors, then from strabismus suffersEvery 50th child. This form of deviation is easy to recognize even without the advice of specialists. Strabismus in children is not considered a particularly dangerous disease, but it is not worth starting up its development.
We offer to familiarize with Reasons for its development, Find out what kinds of deviations exist and what measures can and should be taken.
What is it and why does it appear?
Strabismus is a condition characterized byDeviation from the central axis of one or both eyes. When the eye position is correct, the image of the object under consideration is merged with the visual analyzer and we get a clear binocular image.
The child of the deviation does not connect the pictures. In order not to strain the body in vain, the central nervous system "Disables"The mowing eye.
From the side it seems that the crumb looks into differentHand, but in fact only one glazik works. The second begins to react and perform the function of the "beholder", if you close something with a healthy eye. If a long time does not solve this problem, then amblyopia begins to develop, vision on the problem glazika will decrease.
The causes of strabismus in children are usually associated with the body's malfunctioning and the influence of external stimuli.
Its development can be influenced by the following factors:
- Congenital diseases and trauma at delivery;
- Increased physical and mental stress;
- Infectious diseases of the brain;
- The presence of astigmatism, hyperopia, or myopia of medium and high degrees;
- Incorrect development of eye muscles, inflammation and swelling in them;
- Diseases of the central nervous system;
- Sharp decrease in visual acuity on one eye.
Most often such deviations can be seen in children 2-3 years. It is during this period that their eyes learn to work together, to correctly compare the images.
Types of strabismus
The disease has several forms. So, the disease is congenital or acquired. In the first case, the cause of its occurrence is the birth trauma most often. In all types of disease, the deviations may be permanent and periodic and can affect only one or both eyes. There are 2 main forms: paralytic and friendly.
The development of a paralytic form is associated withDisorders in the muscles responsible for the mobility of the eyeball or with diseases affecting the optic nerve. A distinctive feature - mowing only a healthy eye, the injured organ is inactive or will remain in place.
By the form of deviations the paralytic form is divided into 4 more types:
- Convergent - looks at the bridge of the nose. In children, convergent strabismus is often combined with farsightedness;
- Vertical - looking up or down;
- The divergent view is directed toward the temple. With divergent strabismus in children, short-sightedness is most often diagnosed;
- Mixed - the eyes can be directed in different directions.
For the friendly form is characterized by an alternateStrabismus, that is, from the central axis, both the right and left eye can bow out. The reason is most often hidden in the heredity and features of the device of the eyes of this person.
The friendly form is divided into the following varieties:
- Accommodation, can develop in a child up to 2-3Years, at high physical exertion. The reason is the presence of concomitant diseases (hyperopia, nearsightedness, astigmatism) of medium and high degrees. For children who are often sick and weak, it may appear even before the year;
The latter manifest in children 1-2 years of age. The cause of the development of these forms of the disease is associated not only with eye disorders, but also with the presence of external factors. This is a serious enough form of deviation, to solve this problem, it will require a comprehensive approach, and even surgical intervention.
Still there is a hidden form of strabismus in children. You can see the signs after intense studies, when the little one was drawing or studying pictures, if the kid is upset or wants to sleep. In these moments, you can see that the eyes of children seem to be looking in different directions.
After a while, everything becomesTo the place, but this is no reason to calm down, it is necessary to consult with a doctor. A child may have a tendency to strabismus. The oculist will help confirm or deny the diagnosis and, if necessary, prescribe the treatment. Otherwise, the latent deviation can go into an explicit form.
Diagnosis and treatment
At the initial stage of the development of the disease, the childCan not experience any inconvenience. Usually the first such deviations are noticed by parents or acquaintances. Over time, there are symptoms such as dizziness and headaches, images begin to double, the picture is not voluminous, but flat. In addition to this, vision can start to deteriorate dramatically.
In childhood this can significantly affectOn the perception of the surrounding world. Sometimes there is a gap in mental and physical development. All these consequences of strabismus in the child will help correct the doctor's oculist.
Only he can put the right diagnosis and determine the cause of the disease. He also check the visual acuity and if necessary he will pick up the appropriate glasses.
To make a diagnosis, specialTables and mirrors. With the help of appropriate equipment, the deflection angle and the mobility of the eyeballs are determined. In paralytic form, a neurologist's consultation may be necessary.
Treatment of strabismus in children should be started immediatelyHowever, this illness itself does not pass, you will have to work hard for you and the baby. From the diagnosis to complete recovery may take several years. Positive dynamics will be achieved only if all the recommendations of the doctor are strictly observed.
It is necessary to begin with the correction of vision. To do this, children are prescribed special glasses, which they must wear regularly. With the weakening of the muscles of one eyeball, one of the glasses (a healthy eye) can be sealed. This will help to train the weak eye and strengthen it.
Therapeutic (hardware) treatment includesNot only wearing glasses, but also special gymnastics for the eyes. All exercises create moderate workloads and help strengthen the eye muscles. As a result of such training, the weakened areas gradually strengthen, the vision is restored and the slant goes off. A positive result can be expected for a long time, but it will definitely happen.
In addition to the hardware treatment of strabismus in children withSome forms of the disease can be assigned to a surgical operation. It is recommended to do this at the age of 3 to 6 years, although it is possible to operate at any time if necessary. Until the age of 14, the abnormalities are corrected under general anesthesia, later under local anesthesia.
Recover after surgeryIt is possible within 10 days. After this, muscle strengthening exercises must be prescribed. All types of therapy are conducted under the supervision of an ophthalmologist. In the course of treatment, they make corrections and, if necessary, change glasses.
How to avoid such deviations?
Of course, it's good that you can fix the majorityTypes of strabismus, but it is better to try to prevent its development. To do this, the oculists have certain recommendations. Firstly, do not hang too close to the crib or stroller baby toys, you must follow the rules of visual loads.
Secondly, it should be regularly monitored bySpecialists and if there is any doubt, consult a doctor, especially if there is a predisposition to strabismus. Thirdly, any eye diseases should be treated promptly.
If the squint is already there, thenTune in for long-term treatment and strictly follow all the doctor's prescriptions. However, despair should not be - with timely diagnosis and proper treatment for this ailment can get rid of!