Why many parents refused vaccinations? Why are newborns vaccinated against hepatitis B and tuberculosis? What are the contraindications to vaccinations
For several years the subject has been actively discussedInoculations. Now parents are faced with the acute question of vaccinating their children, about the merits and demerits of these activities. In particular, this applies to newborn babies and vaccinations, which are made in the walls of the hospital.
Vaccinations for newborns: weigh "for" and "against"
Many modern moms and dads refuseVaccination of babies at such an early age, but doctors insist on carrying out such manipulations. Even before discharge from the hospital, they are vaccinated against hepatitis B and against tuberculosis (BCG).
Vaccination against tuberculosis
This disease is quite common. According to the World Health Organization, about 2 million people die for this reason every year. The disease is provoked by mycobacteria, of which there are many species, and anyone can become infected, regardless of the living conditions.
Tuberculosis is very contagious and affects many organsAnd body tissues. Therefore, it is recommended to vaccinate babies immediately after birth, because so little a child does not yet have immunity to mycobacteria. Therefore, parents should think well before writing a waiver of BCG.
Vaccination is carried out on the third day afterBirth. The injection is inserted into the left shoulder. First, a papula is formed at the point where the needle is inserted, which will subsequently disappear. After that, a small seal with a size of 1 mm will appear at the site of the injection, which will heal definitively by the first year of life of the crumbs.
BCG vaccination has a number of contraindications, which must necessarily be taken into account by the doctor.
In what cases BCG vaccination is not performed:
- In the family where the baby was born, there are people with acquired or congenital immunodeficiency;
- Cases of complication or negative Response to vaccination against tuberculosis Other Newborn Children in the family;
- Contraindicated for children with congenital insufficiency of enzyme function;
- CNS lesions, as well as severe hereditary pathologies.
There are cases when vaccination should be simply postponed:
- Premature malnutrition;
- Hemolytic disease (developed as a result of incompatibility of fetal blood and mother);
- Infectious processes of different origin.
However, it is worth mentioning about possible complicationsAnd serious consequences that may occur after BCG vaccination. For example, infections that affect the lymph nodes, keloid, subcutaneous infiltrate or painful sores.
Although the vaccine against tuberculosis can not fullyProtect the child, but it will play a significant role in the infection - will not allow the transition of the disease into an explicit form. This simple manipulation almost 100% protects children from severe forms of the disease: tuberculous meningitis, acute forms of infection of the lungs, tuberculosis of bones and joints.
Now pharmacology successfully implements not onlyStandard BCG vaccine, but also the so-called BCG-M. The latter has fewer microbial bodies, so it is often used to inoculate small premature babies.
Immunity after BCG lasts up to 6-7 years, so children who have a negative Mantoux reaction are given a revaccination at the age of 7 and 14 years.
Inoculations to newborns from hepatitis B
Vaccination against this form of the disease is popular inMany countries and the first vaccinations are practiced even before discharge from the hospital. As you know, hepatitis can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, jaundice, possibly asymptomatic virus, as well as liver cancer. Annually, the infection takes about a million people.
You can get infected even with a small doseInfected blood, which usually enters the body through mucous or damaged skin. When an infection is detected in a child, it becomes chronic. For this reason, hepatitis B vaccination is practiced right after birth.
The most frequent routes of infection with hepatitis B:
- From an infected mother during childbirth;
- With blood transfusion, which may be required for various pathologies;
- During a visit to the dentist;
- Hepatitis-related family members are an additional risk factor. Infection can occur, for example, through manicure accessories, which cut nails crumbs.
If the mother has a positive hepatitis status, thenHer baby is vaccinated within 12 hours after birth. However, if the baby is not full, then in this case, postpone the manipulation, until he accumulates weight up to 2 kg. Injection is done in the thigh intramuscularly.
Schedule of vaccination against hepatitis
In the maternity home the newborn is made up one by oneFrom two schemes. The first one is standard. The first inoculation is done in one of the selected days before discharge from the hospital, the second - at three months, the third - 6 months after the first.
The second scheme, an alternative one, is carried out inEmergency cases. It differs from the standard one in that the first vaccination is carried out for 12 hours after birth. Follow-up is performed in the first and second months of life, and then in a year.
Only a fully completed vaccination course will provide the child with protection from infection for 15 years.
Modern vaccines are well cleaned, soAdverse reactions occur in very rare cases. However, they are no exception. After inoculation to the newborn in the hospital, urticaria, pain in the muscles and joints, erythema nodosum, a slight increase in temperature, malaise, redness and denseness at the point of injection of the needle may occur.
Information for consideration
Preventive vaccines have saved mankind fromMany diseases that claimed the lives of millions in past centuries. In recent decades, serious outbreaks of smallpox, poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tetanus have not been observed in developed countries.
Since newborn children almost do not haveImmunity, it is very susceptible to the effects of pathogens. Therefore, advocates of vaccination recommend vaccinating babies immediately after birth.
The vaccine contains a minimum dose of bacteriaOr viruses that help the child develop immunity to certain diseases. In the future, if the infection is infected, the baby will not react sharply to it, because the antibodies will not allow it to develop.
However, opponents of vaccination state thatThe use of vaccines in the first days of life is not advisable. For example, the first to be infected with hepatitis is the leading disorderly sexual life, taking intravenous drugs, as well as working with blood products.
It is also possible to draw up an individual scheduleInoculations. If the parents refused vaccinations in the maternity home, but want to do them later, the district pediatrician will take care of the individual vaccination plan.
Does it make sense to vaccinate everyoneNewborns? After all, the full picture of the state of health of the baby in the first days of life is very vague. Will a small organism be able to cope well even with the minimal dose of bacteria and viruses that are introduced with the vaccine? Practice shows that the harmfulness of early vaccinations should not be ruled out.
It is quite difficult for parents to make a decision on the need to vaccinate their child, because there is not enough special knowledge, besides, it is necessary to bear a great responsibility.
In such cases it is recommended to seek help from doctors, to bypass several, and those who support the vaccination, and those who are against. Based on the information received, it is worth drawing conclusions.