What is hydrocephalus? The causes of the appearance of pathology and symptoms of the disease. Treatment with conservative and operative methods
The birth of a child is a joy for the whole family. The happiest moments can be attributed to the first cries of a newborn baby. They make it clear to the parents that they have fulfilled their mission.
The appearance of crumbs brings not only joyMotherhood. From the very first hours of its existence the child requires care, attention and care. A kid is a big responsibility, which parents take upon themselves. A monthly visit to the district pediatrician, regular weighing and a variety of measurements will become part of everyday life.
Care should be taken to closely monitor developmentKid, pay attention to the symptoms and signs of violations. This will allow timely diagnosing and correctly approaching the treatment of the disease, when it is found.
What does the diagnosis say?
Today, one of the major problems isIncreased intracranial pressure, which can occur due to a large number of causes, ranging from hypoxia during the birth process and ending with pathologies such as encephalitis and meningitis.
Among the most common sourcesDisease refers to the violation of metabolic processes in a small organism, as well as premature overgrowing of the fontanelles. One of the most problematic pathologies diagnosed by pediatricians is hydrocephalus in newborns.
Such a doctor's decision is a great stress for parents. Why is this pathology so scary?
In simple terms, hydrocephalus isA dropsy of the brain is a severe pathology that provokes an increase in the size of the head. If the disease is found in the older child, then this symptom is absent, because the bones are stronger and the skull does not change its size.
The causes of hydrocephalus in newborns
If we rely on the results of medicalStatistics, we can distinguish two main provoking factors: birth trauma, which is often accompanied by intracerebral / intraventricular hemorrhage; Tumors and malformations of the brain.
Pathology due to modern methodsDiagnosis, for example, ultrasound, can be detected even during pregnancy, that is, the fetus. Usually in this situation, it arises from a deviation in the development of the nervous system or after a pregnant woman has suffered an intrauterine infection (toxoplasmosis, cytomegalia, herpes).
Even at the planning stage of the child, parents shouldTo pass tests for the presence of these infections, because often they leak secretly, and then cure them. This will avoid complications in the future. In rare cases, hydrocephalus develops due to a genetic disorder.
Signs of hydrocephalus in newbornsAttentive parents can notice themselves even in the early stages of the disease. In this situation, it is necessary as soon as possible to turn to a specialist - neuropathologist.
Only a qualified doctor will be able to confirmOr refute the diagnosis after the research. Early diagnosis of this disease will increase the probability of successful treatment several times.
Signs of the presence of pathology
Hydrocephalus, whose symptoms are easy to detect in newborns, is manifested as:
- constant drowsiness A child or, conversely, increased excitability and activity;
- Frequent regurgitation, which may result in vomiting;
- Seizures caused by hypertension of the muscles of the lower limbs;
- Decreased appetite. Usually infants refuse the breast or bottle;
- The rapid increase in the circumference of the head is the first symptom that allows one to suspect a dropsy of the brain;
- Bloating of veins on the head, an increase in fontanelles due to a large amount of cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid in the brain regions).
The diagnosis can not be made, based only onTestimony of parents and examination by a neurologist. To confirm or refute a presumptive diagnosis, you need a whole range of studies, which the doctor appoints.
Treatment of hydrocephalus in newborns
As in most other cases, the treatment of edema of the brain can be conservative or operative. The decision to choose a method is taken after receiving the results of the research.
If surgical intervention is chosen, then itAssumes the creation of conditions for the outflow of superfluous cerebrospinal fluid. Conservative way is to take diuretics and special hormonal drugs. However, treatment should be comprehensive, including medication, massage and electrophoresis.
The most popular method of withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid,Regardless of the cause of the disease, there is a ventriculo-peritoneal bypass. Several silicone catheters are implanted in the body, which will drain fluid from the brain into the abdominal cavity, where it will be absorbed between the intestinal loops.
The level of effluent liquor will regulateExclusive use valve. The catheters are held under the skin, so they can not be seen from the outside. More than 200,000 such operations are carried out annually throughout the world, which allows saving many children's lives.
Sometimes the cerebrospinal fluid is diverted to the right atrium, a large occipital cistern or into the abdominal cavity through the spinal canal.
Now it is possible to perform operationsWithout bypass. With the help of endoscopic techniques, they create bypasses for the outflow of fluid in the depth of the brain. Unfortunately, this effective method is used only in the case of some forms of occlusive hydrocephalus.
Successfully performed surgery is a guarantee that the disease will stop its development, and the child will develop on a par with peers.
As for medicines,Often appoint Diakarb. It affects the production of cerebrospinal fluid, reducing it. In such a situation, children are not operated on and are under constant observation by the doctor. This is necessary only in those situations when the disease does not progress and there is no increase in intracranial pressure.
Consequences of hydrocephalus found in newborns
The degree of the disease depends on what the ailment can affect.
The most common complications are:
- Violation of speech;
- Visual disturbances that can lead to blindness;
- Increased intracranial pressure is accompanied by constant headaches;
- Delay in the child's mental and physical development;
- Epileptic seizures.
If it is too late to seek medical help, then a fatal outcome is possible.
Observe a sick child should not onlyPediatrician and neurologist, but also a neurosurgeon. It should be noted that the disease is very often eliminated by surgical means, and the surgeon determines the indications and contraindications to the operation, takes into account possible consequences.
If the baby is not observed in a neurosurgeon, then,There may be an unreasonable delay in surgical intervention, which is fraught with serious complications. Even if the neurologist does not give directions to another doctor, parents should visit him on their own.
It should be mentioned that a prolonged highIntracranial pressure delays psychomotor development of the baby, and the big head does not decrease even after the operation, it just stops growing. The child will literally find it hard to wear it on her shoulders.