Types of dysarthria and causes of the disease. Signs and symptoms. Methods of treatment of dysarthria in children. Prevention in children with a predisposition to the disease
Dysatria - violation of pronunciation of words byReason of insufficient innervation of the speech apparatus, that is, due to poor connection of tissues and cells with nerve endings. Quite often such a diagnosis is put to children. In this case, patients Dysarthria There is limited mobility of the children, soft palate, lips, tongue and other organs of speech, which actually makes pronunciation difficult.
Types of disease
A lot of reasons can cause thisDisease, therefore, when the first symptoms appear, it is recommended to consult a doctor, as with timely diagnosis and treatment, one can hope for a good prognosis.
Dysarthria in children is divided into several species depending on the affected area:
- Bulbarnaya develops as a result of local paralysis of the muscles that participate in articulation. An accompanying sign is difficulty in swallowing;
- Cerebellum suitably occurs when the cerebellum is affected, characterized by a slow speech with varying loudness;
- Cortical - the result of the defeat of the cortex, which are responsible for the muscles involved in the articulation. The general structure of words is preserved, but the syllables are pronounced incorrectly;
- Pseudobulbar dysarthria occurs in children with central muscle paralysis. A characteristic symptom of this type is the monotony of speech;
- Extrapyramidal, or subcortical, hyperkinetic develops as a result of disorders localized in the subcortical nodes. The speech becomes blurred, acquires a nasal hue, is indistinct;
- Parkinsonism occurs with Parkinsonism, accompanied by a slow and inexpressive speech;
- Cold - a sign of myasthenia gravis - neuromuscular disease;
- The erased form of dysarthria is characterized in children by disturbances in the pronunciation of whistling and hissing sounds.
Each of the forms of the disease in different waysManifests, requires an individual approach in each case. With the help of a number of analyzes and studies, conduct a thorough diagnosis in a hospital. In addition, a speech card is prepared for a child with a dysarthria, which will allow the speech therapist to determine the course of therapy.
If the worn or cold form is well suitedCorrection by a speech therapist, then the bulbar and pseudobulbarnaya often remain forever. In the first case, the child can normally attend kindergarten and school, in the second - special educational institutions. In addition, an important role is played by the reason that caused the violation.
Causes of dysarthria:
- Organic damage to the central nervous system (CNS), when the facial muscles are partially or severely restricted in movements, infantile cerebral palsy (cerebral palsy);
- Severe brain damage orSeparate sites due to intrauterine infection, prematurity, birth trauma, incompatibility of Rh factors, pathologies of placenta development, asphyxia, pregnancy toxicosis;
- Meningitis, encephalitis.
This disease requires carefulExamination in a hospital, because the pathology is associated with the brain and the central nervous system. Doctors should implement a systematic approach developed by speech therapists, which takes into account both the specifics of verbal and other disorders, the overall psychoneurological condition of the baby and his age. Speech therapist is an individual speech card.
Today in medicine, effective methods have been developedEarly diagnosis. The examination includes visits to such doctors as a psychologist, speech therapist, therapist, psychoneurologist, psychotherapist, defectologist and many others - depending on the type of pathology.
Signs and symptoms of dysarthria in children
There are a number of characteristic phenomena, thanks toWhich can detect the presence of the disease, when it is still at an early stage. The full characteristic, of course, is made up by doctors, but some signs parents can see for themselves.
The main symptom is the violation of sound. Also, speech breath, voice, rhythm, tempo, melody of speech are lost.
- The weakness of articular muscles can be manifested in different ways: lips do not close, languid or too tightly compressed, the tongue falls out when the mouth is open, there is increased salivation;
- Speaking in the nose without signs of a cold or sinus;
- Sounds in words are distorted, replaced by others, skipped. In this case, not one sound suffers, but several or all at once;
- Violation of speech breathing: by the end of the phrase the tone fades, in the middle of the conversation the child starts to choke, often breathes;
- Violation of the voice, it becomes too high or squeaky;
- The melody of speech suffers: the patient can not change the pitch of the tones, that is, the tone is monotonous, the flow of words is either fast or slow, but in both cases incomprehensible.
If we pay attention to these phenomena, thenViolations will be noticeable at an early age. Timely appeal to specialists in some cases will allow preparing the child for training in a regular school.
Many patients suffering from dysarthria areConventional schools, but only if treatment was conducted. If the form of the disease is not amenable to correction, the child will have to study in specialized institutions, since violations of the speech apparatus will not allow them to fully master the skills of writing and reading.
Treatment of dysarthria in children
This pathology requires an integrated approach. Logopedic correction is combined with exercise therapy and medication.
- Speech therapy. Physicians-speech therapists, correcting the violation, are engaged in all aspects of children's speech: phonetic hearing, vocabulary, grammatical structure. Usually special groups are created for this purpose in preschool institutions and in speech schools. Game methods of correction are predominantly used, since the work is still carried out with children. Applied as computer simulators, and a variety of programs with which you can quickly cope with the problems detected;
- Drug treatment of various forms of dysarthria inChildren presupposes the appointment of drugs of the nootropic group. They specifically affect the higher functions of the brain, improve mental activity and memory, which greatly facilitate the learning process, as well as stimulate intellectual activity and cognitive functions. For example, the most common and effective are glycine, phenibut, encephabol, semax, cortexin, cerebrolysin, cerebro, pantogram (gopantenic acid). Drug treatment should be performed under strict medical treatment, because only an expert will select the optimal drug;
- Exercise therapy. It is necessary to engage in special gymnastics - articulation. The purpose of such an event is to strengthen the facial muscles. Point and speech therapy massage is also shown. Children should perform exercises with fingers.
Children who are predisposed to dysarthria(Pathology of intrauterine development, birth trauma, neuroinfections, etc.) should be under the close attention of parents in terms of psychophysiological development.
Caring for a crumb, you need to monitor itThe rhythm of life, that is, sleep and wakefulness, not to allow the impact of unfavorable psychological and physical factors. Perhaps, the constructed speech card, which is usually needed by speech therapists, will allow parents to follow the development of the child.
Such babies need constant communication, withThey need to talk more, support their walking and babbling at an early age. Much attention is also paid to developing a grasping reflex, encouraging the study of different surfaces and forms of things.
It is necessary to start reading books, describe and display pictures, trying to get a response.
The prognosis of the outcome of the disease remains to the endUncertain, because dysarthria in the process of progression involves irreversible disorders of different parts of the brain and the central nervous system. In general, the goal of treatment of pathology is the formation in the child of speech that does not interfere with the learning of writing and reading skills and is understandable to others.
For example, an easy stage (erased) with an earlyThe beginning of rehabilitation suggests a positive result of treatment. Most of the success depends on the efforts of the patient himself, support of relatives and relatives, favorable psychosocial background.
If it is timely to begin treatment of severe form, then with an active logopedic work, placement in a special school, you can achieve significant success, significantly improving speech.