What is otitis media? How is treatment of purulent otitis, treatment of bilateral inflammation and treatment of otitis media? Measures to prevent ear diseases
Otitis is one of the most common pathologies of ENT organs. In most cases, inflammation of the middle ear is observed as a complication after angina, influenza and other similar diseases.
Pathology has several varieties, which differ in their localization and symptoms, as well as methods of treatment.
Symptoms of inflammation
The most mild form is otitis externa, butBesides it there is an internal and an average. As for the signs of the disease, the most common is aching pain, which is of a periodic nature. Small swelling of the auricle and an increase in body temperature are possible.
Otitis of the middle ear is accompanied by a verySevere pain, a decrease in hearing, there is a feeling of congestion and the noise of overflowing water. The severe form is accompanied by secretions and an increase in temperature over 38. In the absence of treatment, this form affects the inner ear.
Symptoms and treatment of otitis media in childrenAre similar to the previous form, but the disease is dangerous because there is a high risk of complications. Such a disease requires treatment in the hospital and in some cases even an operative intervention is required.
It is worth noting that, like many other pathologies, inflammation in the ears can occur in acute and chronic form.
In the first case, the pain sensations increase very rapidly. In the second, they are less pronounced.
Treatment of acute purulent otitis in a child
The disease affects the mucous membraneEardrum. In this case, all parts of the middle ear also suffer. The main danger of the disease is that in the beginning it proceeds in a mild form, and then it progresses violently and provokes a strong inflammatory reaction of the whole organism.
In addition, very often after it remainsAdhesive process, which is accompanied by hearing loss. The latter is difficult to treat. Purulent lesions can become chronic, often progressive, leading to a number of complications.
Most patients are children under 3 years of ageAge. At the same time the disease begins to acutely begin, but lethargically. It should be noted that children are susceptible to recurrence of the disease. The peak incidence falls on the period of epidemics of viral infections.
From the very onset of inflammation, a process takes place that leads to the breakthrough of pus at a certain moment, then they begin "flow"Ears. But not always a breakthrough comes out. Otherwise, a very unfavorable situation develops. Sometimes the inflammatory process affects the bone tissue of the temporal region and passes into mastoiditis, which requires more diligent treatment.
If the pus did not erupt itself, then the otolaryngologistCan perform a puncture of the tympanic membrane - paracentesis. When he does not go out on his own, there is a need for such a procedure, since pain in the ear not only persists, but also grows. The event will let it out and avoid getting inside the head. After the procedure, the patient's condition improves significantly.
It should be noted that paracentesis is sufficientPainful, so it is carried out under local anesthesia, and children - under general anesthesia, because they can not sit quietly, will cry and fidget, but you need to stay still. Paracentesis is done according to the indications. It is performed by a qualified ENT doctor. The process is not dangerous, has no side effects and does not affect the hearing in any way.
After rupture of the eardrum, the ailment beginsRetreat, and the symptoms will slowly subside. But throughout the period of the course of purulent otitis, it is necessary to conduct conservative treatment, including antibiotic therapy, local and physiotherapy. With proper treatment, the otitis occurs after 5-10 days. After the child has recovered, restorative and resorptive therapy is needed.
There are several treatment points that can be used in most cases:
- Warming procedures (heat compresses). Performed only in the first few hours from the onset of the disease, until the outflow of pus;
- You can not instill drops on an alcohol basis. They can burn the mucous membrane;
- At children purulent otitis in the majority proceeds very quickly and pus can be allocated already in the first day;
- If the doctor has appointed a puncture of the tympanic membrane, it is necessary to perform it in the shortest possible time;
- Remove pus and mucus from the ear canal;
- After cleansing, it is necessary to use drops. Often it is a vasoconstrictor;
- Anesthetics and antipyretic drugs;
- Physiotherapy includes electrophoresis, UHF;
- Reception of antihistamines.
Treatment of acute bilateral otitis media in a child
Bilateral lesion is an inflammation in the tissues of the auditory tube or tympanic membrane, but the process can affect nearby tissues.
This form of the disease has 5 stages of development:
- 1 stage. At first, the ears are laid, noise appears, the temperature is often absent;
- 2 stage. Then, catarrhal inflammation of the middle ear is possible, accompanied by shooting pains;
- 3 stage. Dopers, characterized by severe soreness, which affects the neck, teeth, eyes, pharynx, the temperature rises above 38;
- 4 th stage. Postperforative stage - the pain is weakened, the suppuration begins;
- 5 th stage. In the final phase, bilateral inflammation stops and recovery begins.
To reduce the temperature are appointedAntipyretic. In most cases, this is normal paracetamol. Antibiotics are prescribed without fail. Along with them are shown antihistamines and probiotics.
The instillation of ear drops also helps. Use only heated means. The child after the procedure should lie on his side for a while. Then in the ear lay a cotton wool. It may be necessary to use vasoconstrictive drops for the nose to reduce pressure on the middle ear. You can warm up the ear area and put vodka compresses.
The course of therapy should appoint only a doctor. The prescribed drugs should be given to the child in strictly prescribed doses. The essence of the treatment is to prevent the transition of bilateral otitis to a purulent form, which requires surgical intervention.
Treatment of acute otitis media in a child
As in previous cases, you need to actfast. When the first symptoms appear (most often it's a sharp pain and fever) put a warming vodka compress behind the auricle. It is good to use camphor alcohol, half diluted with water. The pain will decrease a little, but it is not for long, so it is necessary to visit the ENT.
The doctor will determine the form of the disease, because of it will depend on the course of therapy. Treatment generally lasts about 10 days, but in very severe or neglected cases it can be delayed, and is complex.
The child needs to provide peace, so thatProvoke complications. Antibiotics are prescribed, which must kill the causative agent of otitis media. They can have a tablet form (for example, Flemoclav, Cyphran, Solutab) or drip (Sofraks, Otypaks). Before burying it is necessary to heat them in the hands.
If there is no opportunity to visit the doctor immediately,You can buy suitable drops, for example, Otypax, and strictly following the instructions, drip into the ear. Be sure to observe the dosage that the manufacturer indicates in the instructions. With very severe pain, it is allowed to give the child painkiller.
When raising the temperature, it is necessary to use antipyretic (for example, Panadol, Nurofen). It is worth noting that warming compresses can not be done with suppuration and high temperature.
With exacerbation of otitis, the child should not be released from the house when a strong wind is blowing, it is cold. It is desirable to avoid talking and reduce physical activity. Ears should be covered with a warm bandage.
Prevention of otitis
First of all it is recommended for bathing a babyInsert into the ear passages ear plugs or cotton swabs soaked in oil. This will protect them from dirty water. Regularly you need to clean the ears of dirt. Cotton sticks can not be used every day, as they remove earwax, which protects the auditory canals.
Since otitis often occurs in the form ofComplications after an ENT disease, then you need to direct your strength to increase the immunity of the child, not to let him runny nose and other unpleasant phenomena.
Mandatory treatment is necessary to cure a runny nose. In infants, mucus from the nose is sucked off with a special pear, and older children should easily blow their nose. Watch for the health of your children, do not engage in uncontrolled self-medication and on time contact for help to specialists!