What is otitis media? Treatment of secondary, catarrhal, external and exudative otitis media in children. Features of the course of the disease and its symptoms
The most common cause of otitis media, according toDoctors, are complications after incorrect and untimely treatment of the common cold. But in some cases, the ear becomes inflamed due to the activation of pathogenic microflora after hypothermia. And newborns suffer from this ailment mainly because of amniotic fluid entering the auditory tube.
Treatment of infants up to 2 years of age is very often difficult, because they can not accurately express their complaints. If there is a severe form or complication, Otitis treatment in children Up to one year is spent Antibiotics.
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Disease
According to experts, infectious diseaseMiddle ear - one of the most common causes of pain in infants and older children. The development of the disease provokes a bacterial or viral infection that penetrates the auditory canal from the throat or nose. Symptoms of the disease are most often observed in children up to 6 years of age.
Pathology in the ear canal of a young childIt is difficult to recognize, because he looks just sick. Therefore, parents should periodically examine the ear canals of the baby, if the fever has risen, a fever has appeared and it is difficult to put an approximate diagnosis on its own.
When a crumb worries, rolls his head overCushion, presses her hands to her, then the phenomena characteristic for inflammation of the ear take place. To diagnose otitis in children older than 3 years is much easier, since they can clearly explain what worries them. Also, parents will be able to determine for themselves which ear has suffered.
Treatment Otitis begins with a doctor's examination of the drumMembranes with a special tool - an ear funnel. If the examination revealed inflammation, the membrane will be red and swollen due to the fluid that has accumulated in the auditory canal.
The danger of pathology lies in the fact thatOften there are complications, which are especially often observed in infants. Among them: rupture of the membrane and damage to the auditory ossicles, which are responsible for the transmission of sound. To avoid complications, the probability of which is very high with a severe form of the disease, prescribe antibiotics.
Treatment of acute otitis media in children
Signs of acute inflammation of the hearing system more oftenAll note in children in the first year of life. The classical course of the disease is divided into three stages - the initial phase, the period after the rupture of the eardrum and recovery.
At the outset, the disease makes itself felt with the help of heat, pain, hearing loss and hyperemia of the tympanic membrane. The next stage comes after a breakthrough.
This period is characterized by sharp spontaneousPain, but the temperature drops, and the intoxication of the body decreases, discharge from the auditory canal. The recovery stage no longer has signs of acute inflammation, while the tympanic membrane slowly closes, and the baby can hear it again.
In some cases, the first stage of development of otitisabsent. This situation is characterized by a very strong pain syndrome, a sharp rise in temperature and a severe general condition. Against the background of these conditions in just a couple of hours, the perforation of the membrane can occur and the process of pus flow begins.
Stop the violent course of the disease withUsing antibiotic therapy. It is preferable to use broad-spectrum drugs, for example, amoxicillin. But parents should not independently conduct such treatment. Drug medications of this series should be prescribed only by a qualified specialist.
Treatment of acute catarrhal otitis in children
Symptoms of this form of the disease include moderate ear pain, a slight decrease in hearing and an increase in temperature to 38. On the overall health of the crumbs, these phenomena do not affect very much.
However, the danger lies in the fact that the catarrhal form can pass into purulent in just a few hours. When this happens, the pain is greatly increased, and the temperature rises even more.
Sometimes the pathology passes on its own, butDrug treatment is not canceled. It becomes a guarantee that the purulent damage of the ear canal will be prevented. But in practice, the picture looks somewhat different.
Chronic course of the disease and weakenedImmunity - the basis for the transition of catarrhal otitis into purulent. Antibiotics are also used in this case. They are also prescribed for children under 2 years of age who suffer from chronic pathology.
This form of the disease is well docked by dryCompresses that promote active blood circulation at the site of inflammation, and also increase the production of protective cells. In addition, the course of therapy can include vodka compresses and heating with a blue lamp.
Without fail, the doctor prescribes ear drops. Modern pharmacology offers various means, including medicines for infants of the first year of life, for example, Otipax.
Treatment of acute external otitis media in children
This form of lesion is characterized by itching, swelling,Redness and suppuration. The general condition of the crumb will be significantly heavier if it has other skin diseases, for example, eczema. In this situation, the itch will be particularly pronounced, so the crumb becomes restless and nervous.
Often the cause of external otitis media isAn infection that gets into the skin when combing hair or careless cleaning of the ears in babies. However, the disease can be provoked by group A streptococci (erysipelas).
With the development of pathology, the child refusesEating, his temperature starts to rise and chills appear. There is a swelling of the auricle, a slight reddening of this area, and on the skin covers are visible vesicles. In addition, in the external auditory meatus there are furuncles or inflamed hair follicles, and these phenomena, in turn, provoke soreness.
The mild form of external otitis can be cured inHome conditions. To do this, use a variety of ointments, balms and lotions. If the baby has a serious course of the disease, then he needs to be hospitalized, especially for children of the first year of life.
When a small patient enters a health facility, the treatment course includes antibiotics that have an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effect.
Treatment of acute exudative otitis media in children
Its name was received because ofAccumulates in the cavity of the middle ear fluid - exudate. Inflammation interferes with the release of this substance to the outside, and it creates a favorable environment for reproduction of bacteria and viruses. The liquid eventually thickens and mucus and pus are produced.
This form most often affects children from 3 to 7 years and is associated with an increase in adenoids.
Adequate and effective treatment of exudative otitis will help reduce the severity of symptoms within a few days, and also prevent complications and the transition of the disease to a more complex form.
The course of therapy is aimed at restoring the permeability of the mucous nasopharynx, returning the hearing and eliminating inflammation in the ear:
- Since the ailment makes breathing difficult, some of the measures involve the restoration of respiratory functions;
- Elimination of co-morbidities, if any (tonsillitis, influenza, SARS, etc.);
- Restoration of patency of the auditory canal;
- Immunomodulating course, which will increase the body's resistance to infections.
Perhaps, surgical intervention is necessary - shunting the tympanum. This procedure allows you to get rid of the liquid.
The method of eliminating acute otitis media depends on itsForms and stages, causes, general health of a small patient. It should be noted that a special approach to the treatment of otitis in children is required, since the structure of the hearing aid is not the same in them as in adults. Also parents should understand that in a number of cases, the abating of symptoms indicates the transition of inflammation to the tympanum.
That's why you need to lead your baby to a doctor evenAt the slightest sign of the disease. You can give the child an antipyretic, for example, paracetamol. To reduce the temperature and eliminate soreness will help Panadol or Nurofen.
Treatment with antibiotics and drops should be prescribed only by a specialist. Do not delay the visit to him, because, as mentioned above, some forms of otitis can very quickly progress.