The causes of the appearance of astigmatism in children, the symptoms of the disease, how to recognize the disease in time, the correction of vision for preschool children
Among the common ophthalmologic diseases in children, astigmatism is most often detected - displacement of the visual focus. The disease is characterized by the fact that the child sees the surrounding world "not properly", Is distorted.
In general, this pathology manifests itself in tandem with myopia or farsightedness. These subspecies of the disease are respectively called myopic and hypermetropic astigmatism.
Etiology of the disease and its variants
A healthy, normally functioning corneaHas a flat spherical surface and optical focus. In people with normal vision, the rays of light, refracted in the optic system of the eye socket, do not intersect and converge at one point. The surrounding objects are seen clearly and as they really are.
When the beam is broken, the rays scatter, creatingThis is a few tricks at once. The perception of the image is distorted, since none of the foci are in the correct axis. Basically, this happens because of the wrong shape of the eye - the surface of the cornea is not spherical, but extended to either side.
It is for this reason that the eye, looking in different directions from the center, sees not the same. Most often uneven cornea, however, a defect can be in the lens.
For this reason, we distinguish still other types of astigmatism: corneal and lens. In addition, there are other types of this violation: simple, complex and mixed.
- Simple - long-sighted astigmatism in children or nearsighted, but only one eye;
- Complex - characterized by the same-named visual defects for both eyes;
- Mixed - characterized by the fact that one eye is short-sighted, and the second - long-sighted.
The difference in the strength of the refraction of the strongest andThe weakest meridian characterizes the magnitude of pathology in diopters. It is worth noting that the incorrect refraction of light in the eye of a person is not uncommon.
According to the results of various studies, every fourth inhabitant of the planet has a so-called "Physiological astigmatism", With the difference of refraction is up to 0.5 diopters.
Such a phenomenon does not require treatment, anyCorrection or constant wearing of glasses, since this error is not even felt. However, if the indices of the difference reach 1 diopter and higher, this is already called pathological astigmatism, which requires treatment. On the strength of the disorder, three types of disease:
- Weak - a maximum of 3 diopters;
- Average - up to 6;
- Strong - more than 6.
Causes of astigmatism in children
Astigmatism, as a complex hypermetropic, bothAnd mixed, most often in children is manifested as a congenital disease, which is caused by a genetic predisposition. However, this does not mean that the child does not see well from birth.
In most cases, the disease does not know about itself for many years, but it can manifest at any time.
The sooner a violation is detected, the faster,It will be easier and more effective to undergo a course of treatment, because timely correction measures will significantly reduce the burden on the vision system and, accordingly, will prevent the risk of complications.
In addition, the disorder can occur as a result of a malfunction, when the cornea itself takes the wrong shape, for example, after trauma or surgery.
The most correct way to detect astigmatism in children is a professional examination with an ophthalmologist. That is why it is absolutely necessary to undergo preventive examinations at the oculist at the age of:
- In 4 months;
- In the first year;
- 3 years;
- 5 years;
- 7-8 years;
- 10 years;
- 12 years;
- 16 years.
In most cases, the doctor diagnoses the developmentThis pathology in children older, starting with the second year of life. But there are cases when the mother of an older baby suspects the presence of a child and the need for correction.
It is most difficult to detect astigmatism in children under one year, because they can not tell about their condition.
There are a number of symptoms that indicate a disease:
- The child often says that he does not see anything well, regardless of distance;
- There are systematic headaches in the eyebrows, forehead. Often occur because the child tilts his head for better visibility;
- The visual load very quickly tires the baby;
- Narrowing of eyes;
- It is difficult to focus on printed text.
What to do if a disease is detected
Very often minor disturbances in the visualSystem pass by themselves with age. However, inaction in the presence of pathology is fraught with reduced vision, excessive tension, cuts in the eyes, headaches, often strabismus and amblyopia (syndrome "Lazy eye").
If a child has a diagnosis of astigmatism,Then medical appointments will primarily be aimed at correcting vision. First of all, the ophthalmologist selects eyeglasses (contact lenses are rarely used).
In this case, they have cylindrical glasses - for permanent socks. At this time, the main task of parents is to control eye growth and timely replacement of optics.
Now on the shelves can be in a large range to meet poly-diaphragm glasses, "In the hole", Or in another way - laser-vis. They are used to treat eye diseases, increasing the depth of the optical focus.
However, most experts are skeptical about this method. True, such a product will not do harm, but it will take time if patients expect this correction.
Treatment of astigmatism in children occurs withUsing contact correction, as well as with the use of a video-computer method for improving vision. Very effective itself has recommended gymnastics for the eyes. During the course of treatment, it gives a positive dynamics.
In most cases thisA full complex quite effectively increases visual acuity and after a while completely get rid of spectacular dependence. And this is the goal of corrective treatment: to improve the visual acuity of the child without the help of glasses.
However, it should be emphasized that optics is just a correction, not a cure. It is possible to completely cure astigmatism, only by resorting to surgical intervention.
Such surgical treatment is possible only after 20 years, taking into account the peculiarities of the course of the disease, because up to 16 years in the body there are active growth processes, including the vision system.
Options for surgical intervention:
- Keratotomy. On the cornea cause blind incisions, which weakens the refraction of the strengthened axis. Such operations are carried out with myopia, and also with a mixed form of astigmatism;
- Thermokerukoagulation. Special hot metal needleCauterize the peripheral zone of the cornea. In this case, the curvature of the cornea increases, while simultaneously increasing the refractive force. This type of surgery is performed to correct farsighted astigmatism.
At the age of 18, if there is a weak form of the disease, laser correction is performed if desired. However, this method of correcting vision has its disadvantages and advantages, as well as contraindications, for example:
- Inflammatory eye diseases;
- Scars on the retina;
- Unstable state of vision, etc.
Take care of your children's eyesight, visit the oculist more often and resort to methods of preventing the disease!