What is hepatitis B? What does hepatitis mean? Schedule and individual calendar of vaccinations, indications and contraindications. Side effects of vaccination
Around the theme of vaccination, a lot of controversy has divorced. Both the parents themselves and the pediatricians disagreed. Some completely agree with the need for vaccination, others - absolutely against it. However, many parents are confused.
One of the main arguments in favor of vaccinations is a reduction in the incidence of disease, including hepatitis. Previously, vaccination was mandatory, and the first Inoculations were made to the newborn in the hospital.
These include vaccination against hepatitis type B. They put it to all babies throughout the day from the moment of birth, of course, if there are no contraindications.
What is hepatitis B?
Among several types of hepatitis BIs the most dangerous. It refers to viral infections. Mainly affects the liver. It is worth noting that the disease usually occurs in a moderate or severe form, and in young children, up to a year, the risk of death is increased.
Disease and the fact that it gives complications is dangerous,Many of which become chronic. In addition, hepatitis has the property of provoking such pathologies as cirrhosis and liver cancer, possibly asymptomatic carriage. In children under 5 years of age, the risk of developing hepatitis in a chronic form is 50%, and in children up to a year, 90%.
How is the infection transmitted:
- From an infected mother to a fetus;
- Sexual way;
- Parenteral route, that is, duringManipulations associated with damage to mucous membranes or skin, for example, any surgical intervention (dental treatment, blood transfusion). Infection can occur when visiting a nail salon, etc.
According to the data provided by the WorldOrganization of health care, hepatitis B is much more contagious than AIDS. It is also known that in the world about 2 billion people are infected with this infection, which is resistant to both physical and chemical effects. This is the reason for the rapid spread of the virus.
And for the same reason, WHO recommendedCountries included in the vaccination schedule and vaccination against hepatitis B. Consequently, most states included the vaccine against hepatitis B and made it mandatory, but the individual approach to children is still carried out and vaccination plans for each child may differ.
Inoculation from hepatitis to newborns
For the purpose of prevention in health facilitiesTwo types of vaccines are used: plasma and recombinant. It should be noted that the latter are more popular and more effective, since such drugs contain hepatitis B antigen, which is obtained using DNA technology.
Often used vaccines Euvaks, Infanriks,Angers B and the like. Leaders among manufacturers are France and Belgium. The most commonly used are monovalent Engjerix B and hexavalent Infanrix Hex.
Schedule of inoculations from hepatitis to newborns
If the doctor does not detect any contraindications, hepatitis B vaccinations are performed according to the following scheme:
- On the first day after birth;
- 30 days after the first;
- Six months after the first.
Such a plan helps to protect a person against infection by an infection almost completely.
If the mother of a newborn baby isThe carrier of the virus, then in addition to vaccination, the child is administered immunoglobulin. The first revaccination of such children occurs only after two months, and the second - after 1 year.
As for premature babies, for themMake up an individual schedule, but most often the first vaccination is carried out not earlier than a month from the moment of birth. Basically, it is allowed to vaccinate premature babies when they reach a weight of 2 kg, but here we take into account not only the weight, but also other parameters of the child's physical health.
- Infectious diseases in acute form;
- Decompensated forms of lung diseases, as well as cardiovascular system;
- Allergy to bread and yeast. Yeast fungi are used for the production of the vaccine.
The first inoculations from hepatitis to newborns: side effects
Like other vaccines, a remedy for hepatitisCan cause a variety of local reactions. The most common: a slight increase in temperature, redness at the point of injection of the needle, swelling, urticaria, erythema nodosum. Usually the symptoms pass independently after two days. In fairly rare cases, severe reactions are observed.
Specialists do not associate vaccination with this disease and appearance Jaundice of newborns. Parents, when making a decision, should know thatThe risk is minimal, but still present, but it is negligible compared to the risk of contracting hepatitis - an almost incurable disease. In addition, modern vaccines are well purified and adverse reactions are rare.
Where to put vaccinations to newborns in the first day, at 1 month and later
The vaccine is injected into the muscle. Subcutaneously it is never put, because in this case its effectiveness will significantly decrease, there may be condensation. For example, in the United States, a vaccine administered under the skin is considered invalid and subject to cancellation.
After a certain period of time, it is re-introduced. To explain this simply: only the dose introduced into the muscle tissue, completely enters the blood and causes an immune response of the necessary strength.
Usually toddlers up to 3 years old, includingNewborn, the injection is done in the thigh. Children older - in the shoulder. These places are chosen not by chance, because the femoral and brachial muscles are usually well developed and located in close proximity to the skin.
However, the muscles of the buttocks are also well developed, but they lie too deep and get them more difficult. In addition, injection into the buttock is associated with additional risks of accidental damage to nerves and vessels.
Vaccine adherents consider the inoculation againstHepatitis a reliable way to protect. The triple introduction of the vaccine provokes the body to produce specific antibodies, which will prevent the development of the disease in 98% of vaccinated children.
Calendar of preventive vaccinations for newborns
It is worth noting that the vaccination schedule mayVary in each case. If the baby is not vaccinated due to contraindications or if the parents decided not to rush with such manipulations, the doctor, based on the data on the child's health and on the wishes of the parents, makes up an individual vaccination plan.
Vaccines prescribed by the vocational vaccination calendar can be administered intermittently for a month (does not apply to BCG) or simultaneously, but in different areas and with different instruments.
To immunize children under the age of one yearIt is recommended to use the vaccine without preservatives (thiomersal). Children who were not vaccinated in the first year of life and who are not at risk, as well as adolescents and adults who were not vaccinated before, first receive a single dose of the vaccine, a month later - the second, after 5 months - a third.
After carrying out of vaccination it is necessary to observeFor the baby and in case of occurrence of negative reactions at once to address to the doctor. In addition to fever, itching and redness at the point of injection of the needle, headaches, nausea and vomiting, upset of the stool (diarrhea), sensation of goosebumps and numbness, as well as arthralgia and myalgia may occur.
Only parents should decide whether to vaccinate a child. As refusing, and agreeing to the inoculation, they take full responsibility for the consequences.
So before the procedure again, weigh all the pros and cons and consult with specialists.