Heart disease is a pathology that is often diagnosed in children. Externally, the disease can be asymptomatic. How can you protect your baby from heart disease?
Heart pathology, in which ariseDefects of the valves, is called heart disease. This common name combines various disorders, such as a defect in the development of the heart, the location of the vessels, the valvular apparatus, the unopened flow of the duct and the oval window.
As a result of such defects with timeDevelop signs that inhibit the development of the body, because of which children need adequate treatment. Thanks to modern diagnostic capabilities, it is possible to detect such a pathology in the maternity hospital or at the perinatal stage.
Causes of heart disease
Heart disease in children can arise because of the fact that during pregnancy of the mother from 2 to 8 weeks there was an incorrect formation of the main cardiac vessels.
This is facilitated by such states:
- Use of alcoholic beverages by pregnant women and smoking;
- The mother's acceptance of certain medicines;
- Various infectious diseases during pregnancy;
- Heredity, that is, in the family of a child, heart defects were in someone from the next of kin;
- Stillbirths or miscarriages in the past;
- Residence of a pregnant woman in ecologically unfavorable terrain.
Classification of heart defects in children
All heart defects are divided into congenital, that is, those that were already at birth, and acquired heart defects in children that develop after the birth of the baby.
Acquired vices, in turn,Subdivide into single, combined and combined. The most common is the defect of the mitral valve of the heart. Less often there are aortic defects and lesion of the tricuspid valve.
All congenital malformations are blue, theirAccompanies the cyanosis of the skin immediately after birth, and white - they are characterized by pale skin. This group includes a defect of the medial or interventricular septum, coarctation of the aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, stenosis of the pulmonary artery and many others.
Symptoms of heart defects can occur on earlyStages of development of the kid, in other cases this pathology can proceed asymptomatically. Some children develop cyanosis of the skin, shortness of breath, underdeveloped muscles, they manage to hear heart murmurs, they often get respiratory diseases. Other children may not feel symptoms at all.
Both parents and pediatricians should alert such signs to children:
- Change in face color, blue or unusual pallor of the nasolabial triangle or fingers, heels;
- Insufficient increase in body weight;
- Unreasonable cry, accompanied by cold sweat, pallor of the skin or its cyanosis;
- Bouts of frequent breathing or shortness of breath;
- The presence of noise when listening to the heart;
- Heart palpitations for no apparent reason;
- Increased fatigue;
- Swelling of the extremities;
- Frequent regurgitation and reluctant sucking.
Children of older age are already capable ofExplain what exactly bothers them. They often complain of pain in the chest, general weakness, shortness of breath during physical exertion, and sometimes at rest. These children can turn blue in the nose, ears, lips. Sometimes sudden fainting is possible. If you watch their way of life, you can see the lack of mobility, lethargy.
Constriction and deformation of the heart valve canCause diseases such as rheumatic endocarditis and infectious inflammatory processes. As a result, the valve flaps can not close completely, and this interferes with the physiological blood flow. Heart failure occurs.
Congenital heart defects in children are very dangerous forTheir health and life, they cause instability and circulatory disorders. Often, the blood is thrown into the adjacent cardiac parts, which again causes heart failure.
Parents must know about the fact that the sooner they turn to a specialist cardiologist, the faster this pathological condition will be diagnosed and all the necessary recommendations will be given.
What to do if a child is suspected of heart disease
If there is any symptomatology of malformationsHeart in children, it is necessary to visit a pediatric cardiologist or a cardiac surgeon as soon as possible. It is very good if the parents turn directly to the center of cardiovascular surgery. There the child will be examined by an experienced specialist, he will be given electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and other necessary studies.
Individual indications are always set toOperative intervention and the timing of the operation. In newborns, as well as children under 5 months, there is a very high risk of complications, compared with older children. Therefore, in the event that the baby's health allows, it is better for him to grow and grow stronger, and at the same time to receive medication with medicines.
If children have signs of heart disease,It is necessary to study them for the presence of disorders or abnormalities of other organs, which can often be combined. Often congenital heart disease in children can occur with various hereditary and genetic pathologies, so the baby should necessarily show genetics.
Methods of treatment
Treatment of heart defects in children is the use of surgical (radical) and drug (they are in most cases, auxiliary) ways.
The volume of surgical treatment is defined inDepending on the phase of the disease, it is carried out both according to the planned indicators, and in an emergency order. Drug treatment is most often symptomatic in arrhythmias, heart failure, ischemia of the heart muscle, and with shortness of breath.
Physical rehabilitation for heart defectsBegin immediately during treatment and continue after it. It is necessary to strengthen the myocardium with regular, but not excessive, loads. It is necessary to observe the correct diet.
Most heart defects, both congenital and acquired, are now amenable to treatment. Therefore, a timely appeal to a specialist will help the child enjoy a full life.