Articulatory gymnastics allows in a short time to get rid of speech defects using simple and effective exercises aimed at developing organs of the speech apparatus
Sounds of human speech are created with the aid of an articulatory apparatus. Together, all the organs that make up this apparatus produce certain movements, which are usually called kinema.
Basic rules of gymnastics for the articulatory apparatus
Harmonious work of the bodies ensures a clear andClear speech. The development of the kinem continues throughout life. However, it is necessary to develop the speech apparatus from early childhood. Specially for this purpose, articulatory gymnastics was developed.
Even newborn babies who do not know how toTalk, perform involuntary movements with their lips, make babbling and indistinct murmuring. This is the beginning of the development of the kineme, which makes it possible to form the exact pronunciation of sounds in the child.
The earlier the gymnastics is used, theMore competent and correct will be speech. A special complex helps to strengthen the muscular tissue of organs and perform swallowing, mimic, and also chewing movements.
Do not think that for the right speechIt is enough to develop only the muscles of the larynx and mouth. Modern articulation gymnastics for preschoolers also includes exercises using the muscles of the facial part, the shoulder girdle and the thorax.
There are several rules, the implementation of which can significantly improve the effectiveness of classes:
- Do exercises every day, no less than3-4 times. The duration of classes should not exceed 3-4 minutes. In this case, the child will treat gymnastics as an entertaining game that never gets boring;
- Each task needs to be repeated no less than 5-7 times, so that the child has learned the maximum benefit from the lesson;
- Static exercises are done in a certain position. Classes should last about 10-15 seconds;
- Creating a complex of gymnastics, it is necessaryVary the degree of complexity, moving from simple tasks to the most difficult. Very useful will be articulatory gymnastics in verse, which will give the game a form of play and at the same time with speech skills will help to develop the child's memory;
- Performing a gym complex, it is recommendedAdd a new exercise daily. However, do not rush if the baby does not get one of the tasks. In this case, it is necessary to wait until the child can perform all the exercises correctly;
- Classes will progress successfully if the baby is sitting with relaxed arms and legs, and also with his back straight;
- For the successful development of an articulatoryThe child must see the face of the parent conducting the exercises, or the speech therapist, in order to copy the mimic movements. Also, perform tasks in front of the mirror so that the child can more accurately reproduce the movements;
- Exercises will be easier if you start the gym with a warm-up for the lips.
Directions of gymnastics
Conditionally articulatory gymnastics for kidsIs divided into passive and active. With a passive form of performing exercises, the child is helped by a parent or speech therapist. An active form is used when the child can cope with the task himself. Help in the passive form is to use a spatula or spoon, which should correct the movements of the tongue and lips.
In addition, exercises can be dynamic andStatic. During static exercises, you need to fix the position of the lips, as well as the tongue. The dynamic form implies the realization of movement throughout the allotted time.
Home exercises are recommended to be performed untilThe child will not be 3-4 years old. Usually by this time, children are sufficiently formed speech. If the pronunciation remains incoherent, you need to turn to a professional speech therapist, who will make a program of classes with the baby, based on the individual characteristics of its development.
Examples of exercises
Often, a small child will jerk, unable to correctly pronounce "R". The articulatory gymnastics for p sound teaches the pronunciation of a hard and soft sound.
"Horse"Strengthens the muscular tissue of the tongue and helpsTo work up the ascent. The kid should smile, at that opening his mouth. Without making the movements of the lower jaw, you need to click the tip of the tongue, reproducing the sound of clacking hooves. During the exercise, you need to gradually accelerate the pace.
"Painter"Makes it possible to work out the rise of the language,Increasing its mobility. You need to smile with your mouth open, and then stroke the sky with the tip of the tongue in the direction of the front and back, touching the inside of the upper teeth. To raise the tongue during exercise and to move the lower jaw is impossible.
"Fungus"Teaches you to lift the tongue up, stretchingSimultaneously the hyoid frenum. It is necessary to smile with a slightly opened mouth, showing teeth. Then the tongue is pressed tightly against the sky with the entire plane, opening the mouth. Every time you need to try to open your mouth wider.
Articulatory gymnastics for sound w helps to get rid of "whistling" and indistinct pronunciation. Use special exercises that help to work out all hissing sounds.
Carrying out "The pipe", You need to smile openly, closing the upperTeeth and lower. It is desirable to keep a smile for 3-5 seconds. Then the lips, folded by the tube, pull forward and hold the position for 3-5 seconds. Teeth should not open.
"Football"Allows you to develop the ability to blow out in the rightDirection of the air jet. Fold your lips with a tube and blow the air out, trying to drive a ball of cotton wool into a certain place with the help of one exhalation. You can not cheat your cheeks.
Use of articulatory gymnastics for sound with allows you to teach your child the pronunciation of all his whistling sounds.
"Cake», An exercise with which you canKeep the tongue in a wide and at the same time relaxed position. The mouth needs to be slightly opened slightly, putting the tongue on the lower lip. Next, the tongue is padded with the lips for about 5-10 seconds. It is necessary to watch, that the edges of the tongue are in contact with the corners of the mouth.
Although the most common voice error is the incorrect pronunciation of sounds "R"," W ", and" c ", some children experience difficulties with the sound of"l". With the help of articulatory gymnastics for sound l, you can quickly cope with the problem.
"The ship buzzes"- an activity that helps to master the skill of raising the language up. Smiling, you need to bite the tongue and say "s" for a long time. The published sound will strongly resemble "l".
During "Needles"The mouth needs to be opened and as far as possible to push the tongue, making it narrow. This position is held for about 15 seconds, after which the tongue is hidden behind the bottom row of teeth.
Naturally, this is only a small part of the complex,Allowing to work out the right speech. It is necessary to pay attention to the problem of slurred speech, since in the future these skills will be useful for the successful development of rapid reading.